These included chipping sparrows, lark sparrows, and lazuli buntings selecting grassland habitats, Lucy's warblers and lark buntings selecting willow-riparian habitats, lazuli buntings selecting mesquite habitats, and Lucy's warblers selecting cottonwood-riparian habitats.
we included the ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens), western kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis), warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus), Lucy's warbler (Oreothlypis luciae), western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana), chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), lark sparrow (Chondestes grammacus), lark bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys), black-headed grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus), lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena), Bullock's oriole (Icterus bullockii), and lesser goldfinch (Carduelis psaltria).
9% sequence divergence; hence, chipping sparrows, or their immediate ancestors, existed during the time that differentiation occurred in fox sparrows (extinction of haplotypes explains why the tree appears pruned at greater levels of haplotype divergence).
To illustrate the comparative phylogeographic approach, I compared the geography of mtDNA variation in five bird species: the Canada goose (Branta canadensis, Anserinae; Van Wagner and Baker 1990), chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina, Emberizinae; Zink and Dittmann 1993a), song sparrow (Melospiza melodia, Emberizinae; Zink and Dirtmann 1993b), fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca, Emberizinae; Zink 1994), and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus, Icterinae; Ball et al.
Secondly, the depths of the haplotype trees differ by a factor of four ([ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED], Table 1), with the Canada goose showing the deepest splits, and the chipping sparrow the shallowest.
The song sparrow occupies several microhabitats (Aldrich 1984), whereas the chipping sparrow and red-winged blackbird occur in the same basic habitat throughout their ranges (AOU 1983).
Hence, gene flow probably inhibits geographic differentiation within groups of the fox sparrow, and in chipping sparrow, song sparrow and red-winged blackbird, even though these species currently span environmental barriers.
These five species might have been historically codistributed and responded to events idiosyncratically (fox sparrow and Canada goose) or not at all (red-winged blackbird, chipping sparrow, song sparrow), or were simply not historically codistributed.
For example, one might predict lower levels of dispersal for the song sparrow (34 subspecies) than the chipping sparrow (seven subspecies), but such was not the case.
They found many of the same species as did the Stausses, plus bluebirds, Oregon juncos, white-crowned sparrows, chipping sparrows
, golden-crowned sparrows, black phoebes and Say's phoebes, Nuttall's woodpeckers, red-tailed hawks, ruby-crowned kinglets, a phainopepla, California thrashers, titmice, red-shafted flickers, a turkey vulture and others.