(16.) The term can be used in non-Christian contexts, as shown in a recorded tale of the succession to the Verata chieftainship
. In this narrative, the reigning chief tells his grandsons, 'I now hold before you a tabua (whalestooth) as my vosa-mana (word of mana) to you, After I have uttered my word I shall bury this tabua into the ground before you.
A leader of the political party that won Botswana's independence and the most prominent chief himself after Tshekedi's death in 1959, he succeeded in restricting the authority of chieftainships
to local affairs in the new state.
are based on direct descent through the male line from the last Gaelic chief or king.
were determined and managed by matrons of certain families who held meetings with other clan women to make these decisions.
Joseph Copeland, also sent out by the RPCS, told of how he encouraged the Aneityumese to fill vacant chieftainships
and assisted in the inauguration of those selected in 1862 when he was based on their island, but wrote nothing about promoting political development after moving to Futuna where he served from 1866 to 1876.
The Roman aim was to encourage small, friendly client chieftainships
who would both respect the Roman frontiers and protect them against other tribal threats, often in return for Roman help against their tribal enemies.
Meanwhile, in response to the advent of the Koniambo Project, the chieftainships
from the southern end of the massif conferred with each other in order to grant their permission to Falconbridge/SMSP to conduct prospecting activities on the massif.