As mentioned above, the elements of coelocerodonts most probably grew in the manner characteristic of the grasping spines of chaetognaths
, by the addition of a new fibrous lamina to the base (see Szaniawski 2002).
Table 1 Comparison of the characteristics of the bioluminescent organs of two deep-sea chaetognaths
, Caecosagitta macrocephala and Eukrohnia fowleri Characteristic C.
Although adult chaetognaths
move throughout the water column, juveniles form swarms at very specific depths, close to the level where the swarms of small copepods they prey on are most abundant.
The presence of other copepod predators, such as siphonophores and chaetognaths
, especially during May-Jun 2008, possibly affects copepod abundance and structure.
, euphausiids and amphipods were the most abundant groups during the study period, accounting for 87% of the total abundance (Fig.
Other important prey included amphipods, chaetognaths
, crabs, and pollock (Fig.
This part of the theory is in accordance with observed blastopore closure or fusion of longitudinal neurogenic areas giving rise to the ventral nerve cords in, for example, annelids (Shankland and Savage, 1997), arthropods (Schwalm, 1997), nematodes (Sulston et al., 983), and chaetognaths
The communities of the intermediate area below the Antarctic convergence are dominated by copepods (more than 60%), although there are also abundant salps, members of the krill family, chaetognaths
of Costa Rica waters and adjacent zones.
Among holoplankton, chaetognaths
and appendicularians (Oikopleura spp.) were very frequent.
pacificus, and fewer insects, decapod larvae, gammarids, and "others." The "others" in this case were mostly bivalves, whereas the "others" for the co-occurring juvenile chum salmon were mostly chaetognaths
Many types of animals and plants exhibit positive phototaxis: brine shrimp (Bradley and Forward, 1984), mosquitos (Barghini et al., 2004), chaetognaths
(Goto and Yoshida, 1981), cephalopods (Moltschaniwskyj and Doherty, 1995), turtles (Salmon and Witherington, 1995), corals (Yamashiro and Nishihira, 1995), and algae (Clifton and Clifton, 1999), to name just a few.
are also common components of the BMLC zooplankton assemblage.
Pelagic Tunicates and Chaetognaths
collected during the cruises to the new Yamato Bank in the Sea of Japan.
Distribution of siphonophores, chaetognaths
, euphausiids and oceanogra-phic conditions in the fjords and channels of southern Chile.