Within each growth form, the species are classified as either solitary or cespitose.
Large cespitose palms are usually in low density in terra firme forests.
The cespitose Euterpe oleracea forms dense stands in coastal swamps under tidal influence in the Amazon estuary (Anderson, 1988) as well as in the Orinoco delta (Gonzalez Boscan, 1987).
Astrocaryum jauari, a cespitose Large tall-stemmed Palm is found throughout the Amazon and Orinoco basins in riparian forests that are flooded several months each year; here, it may form dense stands along black-water rivers (Rio Negro in Brazil and Venezuela, Rio Nanay in Peru).
Several to gregarious, often cespitose, on decaying hardwood logs and stumps.
Gregarious in cespitose clusters on hardwood logs, stumps and branches.
Gregarious to densely cespitose on decaying hardwood.
Its cespitose habit offers excellent possibilities for management, and its harvest is considered sustainable by most authors (e.
2008), and cutting off shoots in cespitose palms (Calzavara, 1972; Jardim & Anderson, 1987; Pollak et al.
Appendix 1 Table 2 Synopsis of Palm Management in South America, Countries: BO, Bolivia; BR, Brazil; CH, Chile; CO, Colombia; EC, Ecuador; GU, Guyana; PE, Peru; SU, Suriname; UR, Uruguay; VE, Venezuela, Human Groups: AF, Afro-descendants; AM, Amerindians; ME, Mestizos or Caboclos, Harvest Techniques: CN, Climbing Neighboring Tree; CP, Climbing the Palm; CT, Cutting Tool at the End of a Pole; DH, Direct Harvest of Low or Acaulescent Palms; FM, Felling as a Consequence of Mismanagement; FR, Felling Required; GH, Harvest from the Ground; ND, No Data (but No Felling); SC, Shoot Cutting in Cespitose Palms.
2 cm, arising from a subicular mat, single of rarely cespitose
, white, off-white or beige below, reluctantly bruising or decaying to 8E8, occasionally covered with mycelial mat similar to subiculum; subiculum limited to a small, tough, felty mat, or occasionally more widespread, thin-lacerate at margin, without inherent rhizomorphs, white, pallid brown where rubbed, up to 5 X 3 cm (usually more limited), up to 2 mm thick, densely felty, often subtended by discrete, ropy rhizomorphs up to 2 mm thick; stipe flesh white to off-white, punky to felty, drying light in weight, easily pierced.
The monospecific genus Tostimontia (Diaz-Piedrahita, 2001) from Sierra de Santa Marta in Colombia was distinguished from Jungia by the cespitose
habit, peltate leaves with foliaceous bracts, and solitary capitula.
Rhizomes very short, producing cespitose
plants of several (less than ten) rosettes, growing mostly on steep rocky places.