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Related to cerebellar: Cerebellar ataxia, cerebellar atrophy
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Infarction at this special location may lead to bilateral and symmetrical WD of the middle cerebellar peduncles (MCPs).
1-3 It has three clinical subtypes: MSA-C when cerebellar signs are predominant, MSA-P when parkinsonian features are predominant and MSA-A when the patient presents with autonomic signs and symptoms.
Mechanism of cerebellar toxicity is thought to be inhibition of cytarabine-dependent neurotrophic signals in the brain.
Although it is known with the classical triad of hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle and hydrocephalus, different definitions were also suggested as a result of studies till date (6) (Table 1).
Cerebellar signs (28%) and papilloedema (12%) were noted in pilocytic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma and haemangioblastoma.
At 1 year of age, she was diagnosed as developmental delay, cerebellar palsy with mental retardation.
One case had cerebellar symptoms such as ataxia and dysdiadochokinesia (9); in another case the alteration of the state of consciousness was one of the first symptoms (10), and in another no meningeal signs were reported (11).
McLeary et al16 have found on ultrasonography of the fetal skull that the posterior fossa is not affected by the pressure effects, and the cerebellar diameter is more accurate reflection of gestational age than the biparietal diameter particularly in the presence of abnormal skull shapes like brachycephaly or dolicocephaly.
The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical-pathological findings related to lissencephaly-pachygyria and cerebellar hypoplasia observed in a single calf to establish the differential diagnosis with other diseases of the central nervous systems of young cattle.
Noncontrast CT imaging of the head performed in the ER demonstrated a roughly 6 cm mass centered in the superior right cerebellar hemisphere with cortical involvement and mild mass effect upon the fourth ventricle.
Cerebellar hypoplasia can result from exposure to panleukopenia virus itself or from modified live panleukopenia vaccines given to cats during pregnancy or to kittens before 4 weeks of age.
The publication of this interesting text has been proceeded by the 25th Update Course "paediatric neurological disorders with cerebellar involvement: diagnosis and management", hold in Rome (2013) at the IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Istituto CSS-Mendel of Rome, in collaboration with the IRCCS Fondazione Istituto Neurologico C.
These include cortical interneurons in the IZ/SVZ, (8) cerebellar granule cells in the external granule layer (9) and precerebellar neurons such as PN neurons, (10) neurons of the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) (11) and facial motor neurons in the hindbrain.
In previous studies, cases of PTA terminating in cerebellar artery are extremely rare [2, 3].
While the signs of cerebellar dysfunction had started acutely, their continuation for more than 2 weeks prompted further investigation for an inherited cause of progressive chronic ataxia (our differential diagnosis included ataxia telangiectasia (no telangiectasia were present clinically and the immunoglobulin levels were normal), abetalipoproteinaemia, Friedreich's ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia.