To evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation of each cephalogram
according to the method described by Hassel and Farman.
, anteroposterior radiographs, and cone beam CT scans were analyzed to determine the transverse, vertical, and anteroposterior dimensions of the maxilla and mandible as well as the occlusal plane angulation.
This [improved realism] has been demonstrated by experiments using electrocardiograms, electronic cephalograms
, galvanic skin response sensors, and muscle tension sensors" (Some Pin Exhibition 1982).
were oriented with the facial profile to the right.
Ever since the advent of the Bolton cephalometer in 1931 (1), orthodontists have routinely used lateral cephalograms
to aid in diagnosis and treatment planning, as well as evaluation of treatment.
Standard lateral cephalograms
were obtained for all subjects.