First, this paper analyses there being a network of the causation between levels of a complex system, and points out that the attempt based on causal reductionism to eliminate downward causation will not succeed so that causal reductionism needs to be gone beyond.
155-156), so whether downward causation exists is crucial to both reductionism and holism.
Then what is the function of downward causation? How can it manifest itself?
'All processes at the lower levels of a hierarchy are restrained by and act in conformity to the laws of the higher level.' 'If 'causation', it is the back-handed variety of natural selection and cybernetics, causation by a selective system which edits the products of direct physical causation' (Campbell, 1974, p.
Campbell uses the jaw structure of a soldier termite or ant to show that the constraint function of a higher level emerges as a sort of causation. The jaw surface and the muscle attachments agree with Archimedes' laws of levers, and can be explained by the protein distribution which can be further explained by DNA.
The British philosopher Karl Popper soon supports this idea and further explains it in the following way: The downward causation we talk about is that a higher level structure is the cause of its lower level.
Accident causation models can provide theoretical basis or conceptualization for accident investigation methods.
This motivates us to tailor more powerful accident causation models to capture the complexity of the highly technological systems from a broad systemic view for understanding characteristics of accidents.
Mentioning that causation factors and their relationships for accidents are always complex in terms of uncertainty, randomness, abstractness, fuzziness, and other properties, it would be a nice try to employ the complex network theory [26-28] to reveal the involved complexity in accidents causation analysis.
The new accident causation network model is constructed in Section 3, and the cascading failure scheme is applied to characterize the evolution of the proposed causation network in Section 4.
Causation factors and their relationships for sociotechnical system accidents are always complex with uncertainty, randomness, abstractness, fuzziness, and other properties.
Wyburn-Mason was probably wrong in claiming discovery of a single-source causation for rheumatoid diseases, he did serendipitously uncover a class of drugs that often modified the diseases rather than simply hiding their symptoms.
The Causation of Rheumatoid Disease and Many Human Cancers is available for free downloading on our website at http://www.arthritistrust.org, under the "Books and Pamphlets" tab.