In this magnum opus, as Philip Clayton described it in his endorsement, George Ellis lays out the case for top-down causation
from an emergentist perspective.
This article is intended as a guide for defense lawyers who are facing claims in which the plaintiff's expert purports to base his or her causation
opinion on a differential etiology.
Another modification of the rule is the independent concurrent causation
In the context of proving causation
for ESA liability,
KEY WORDS: contrastivism, counterfactual conditional, general causation
, singular causation
, causal claim
ACA urged the nation's highest court to review and overturn the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeal's decision, which is an example of how far the courts can depart from settled causation
3) The court ruled that LaLonde failed to carry her burden of proof of causation
State Farm appealed the decision, claiming the court erred in ordering appraisal because it requires the appraisers to make causation
determinations, which is beyond their authority.
Additional studies are needed to draw a causation
He denies that mental states have to be realized by physical states, and supports his claim by developing a kind of mental causation
that is different from the "efficient" causation
standardly described in scientific explanations.
establish the causation
and redressability prongs of the three-part
Epidemiological evidence is regularly presented to courts in determining proof of causation
in medicinal product liability litigation.
The ruling was that the applicable settlement agreement did not require claimants for certain business losses to provide evidence of causation
between the spill and the losses claimed.
We would argue that in addition to the lack of unlawfulness, neither intent nor causation
applies, and furthermore that the term 'passive euthanasia' is an oxymoron and should be abandoned.
However, major theories of causation
render negative causation
by or of absences--incoherent.