The most common neuro-radiological finding of Wilson's disease on MR is bilaterally symmetric T2/FLAIR hyperintensity in the putamina (70%), caudate nuclei
(60%), ventrolateral thalami (55-60%), and midbrain (50%) (31-41).
2] In non-alcoholic WE, the cerebellar vermis, midbrain reticular formation and caudate nuclei
are frequently involved.
One example of it was the overexpression of RCAN1, RUNX1 in contrast with the underexpression of DYRK1A that occur in caudate nuclei
head left and right, putamen, internal and external globus pallidus of normal brain Such result, lead us to propose that in normal brain, expression of these genes in specific structures of cerebral nuclei, and limbic lobe regulate not only cognitive function but emotional ones via a complex network of gene expression responsible by the learning and memory functions among others associated process (23,24).
Zhao and colleagues  reported several findings about the NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios: (a) compared with normal controls, the NAA/Cr ratio in patients with OCD was higher in the right caudate nuclei
and the left hippocampus but lower in the genu of the corpus callosum; (b) compared to normal controls the Cho/ Cr ratio in Patients with OCD was higher in the right caudate nucleus and the left temporal lobe; (c) among Patients with OCD the duration of illness was negatively correlated with the NAA/Cr ratio in the right prefrontal lobe; and (d) among Patients with OCD the NAA/Cr ratio in the genu of the corpus callosum and the Cho/Cr ratio in the left temporal lobe were negatively correlated with the total score of YBOCS.
7,8) MRI demonstrates marked T2 hypointensity within the basal ganglia, with greatest involvement of the putamina and caudate nuclei
PIB PET images of the patients with AD showed marked binding in the frontal, parietal, and lateral temporal cortices, as well as the caudate nuclei
, suggesting that there were significant [beta]-amyloid deposits there.
Researchers have observed reductions in the volume of the caudate nuclei
in people suffering from major depression.
In a recent article in the Journal of Neuroscience Nursing titled, "Neurosurgery for Movement Disorders," the author (Tornqvist, 2001) indicated that open brain surgery for movement disorders began in the 1930s and included partial resection of the motor cortex, pyramidotomy, resection of the head of the caudate nuclei
, and transection of the ansa leticularis.