An increase in HR or SBP within 25 minutes of skin incision indicated failure of caudal anaesthesia
Bupivacaine is the most frequently used local anaesthetic for caudal anaesthesia
in children that provides reliable and long-lasting anaesthesia and analgesia.
is considered as one of the most popular regional blocks performed in children for infraumbilical surgeries.
Comparison of ropivacaine 0.1% and 0.2% with bupivacaine 0.2% for single-shot caudal anaesthesia
A trans-urethral cystoscopy examination was performed under general and caudal anaesthesia
in October 2013.
Efficacy and adverse effects of ketamine as an additive for paediatric caudal anaesthesia
: a quantitative systemic review of randomized controlled trials.
is a useful adjunct to general anaesthesia for lower abdominal surgery in children as it provides intraoperative analgesia, smooth recovery period and good post-operative pain control which reduces Perioperative narcotic requirements.
Gen, "MRI determination of the vertebral termination of the dural sac tip in a South African population: clinical significance during spinal irradiation and caudal anaesthesia
," SA Journal of Radiology, vol.
Regional anaesthesia is usually divided into either central (epidural, spinal and caudal anaesthesia
), or peripheral nerve blocks (lumbar plexus, brachial, intercostal nerve).
is also an epidural anaesthesia achieved through sacral hiatus.
The children were randomly assigned to receive either ondansetron or placebo in combination with caudal anaesthesia
. Randomisation was performed immediately before anaesthetic induction by drawing prepared numbers from closed envelopes.
Krane and Colleagues in 1988 published dose-response data for morphine as an adjuvant to caudal anaesthesia
in addition, three children received fentanyl (dose 1 [micro]g/kg), 17 children received caudal anaesthesia
and seven children received neuromuscular blockade with atracurium prior to insertion of the PLMA.
We conclude that dexmedetomidine when used as an adjuvant in paediatric caudal anaesthesia
provides prolonged postoperative analgesia, better sedation and stable cardiorespiratory parameters.
However it is interesting that there is little discussion of spinal anaesthesia and he states having abandoned both spinal and caudal anaesthesia
. Some of the blocks described are rarely performed now, for example blocking the mandibular nerve at the foramen ovale or the maxillary nerve via the pterygomaxillary fossa, while several chapters are devoted to regional blockade of the head and neck for major surgery including neck dissection and laryngectomy.