Table 1 summarizes various potential categorical imperatives
of ownership in terms of whether they permit the possibility of acting man and whether they necessarily imply a libertarian ethic.
In 'Dignity and the Formula of Humanity' (Chapter 6), Oliver Sensen's close readings of several key passages in Section II aim to establish that human beings are (descriptively) ends in themselves in virtue of the freedom of their wills; that we ought (normatively) to treat others as ends in themselves because the Categorical Imperative
(i.e., the formula of universal law or 'FUL') requires us to do so by requiring us to universalize our maxims; and that humanity's dignity is the relational property of human beings' elevation above the rest of nature.
(5) A categorical imperative
, on the other hand, "wurde der sein, welcher eine Handlung als fur sich selbst, ohne Beziehung auf einen andern Zweck, als objektiv-notwendig vorstellte" (would be one which represented an action as objectively necessary in itself, without reference to another end ).
The categorical imperatives
soon give way to conditional imperatives which impose less strict demands.
Kant (1750/1993a, 1753/1993b) reasoned that all imperatives of duty could be deduced from one categorical imperative
: Act as if the maxim of your action by your will would become universal law.
Although he believed we shouldn't seek happiness for its own sake, he believed that by following the categorical imperatives
, we would make ourselves worthy of happiness.
In the first part of the chapter, Shaver criticizes six different arguments for the instrumental theory: the appeal to naturalism (which fails to supply normativity); Foot's appeal to ordinary language (which amounts only to the request for an argument in favor of other-regarding reasons rather than to a positive argument against them); Mackie's argument from queerness (which applies as much to hypothetical as to categorical imperatives
); the appeal to the social sciences (which runs into the same problem as the appeal to naturalism); the claim that the instrumental theory claims less than its rivals (it doesn't); and the Kantian claim that the instrumental theory is analytically true (which is mere assertion).
With apologies to Immanuel Kant, the rudiments of such an education might be put in the form of three categorical imperatives
: one intellectual, one moral, and one both personal and political.
As was my own college journey, led by Jesuits improbably passionate about all those categorical imperatives
. These men loved ideas so much they could taste them.
Yet Kumin was, even back then, more than the usual categorical imperatives
: New England farmer, naturalist, Jewish-American, woman poet.
This clears the way for a rehabilitation of the Kantian claim that reasons for action can take the form of categorical imperatives
. To illustrate this thesis, I show how a conception of practical rationality that incorporates a contextualist model of justification can be developed that treats social norms as reasons for action, without assigning any mediating role to agent desires.
requirement or the 1999 starting date as categorical imperatives
and is unwilling to suffer new austerity measures.
Lead Director and Other Structural Initiatives Will Be Viewed More as Situational Opportunities Rather Than Categorical Imperatives
. Calls for boards to designate lead directors, to meet regularly without the CEO present, and to adopt a variety of other reforms are today all the rage.
For Kant the commands of morality are categorical imperatives
; in fact, there is only one such command (which can be given at least three different formulations), and so he calls it the categorical imperative
(G 416).(3) Categorical imperatives
are contrasted with hypothetical imperatives, where the distinction between the two types of imperatives has to do with whether the imperative is "universally valid" (G 416).(4) A hypothetical imperative is not universally valid; rather, it "is valid only under a subjectively contingent condition" (G 416).
The academician ponders the intangible, savors the paradoxical, and embraces the peculiar; he or she speaks in a special language of categorical imperatives
and deontological view-points that must be taken into consideration before a statement about honesty is agreed to have any meaning.