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Thus, our goals in the present paper are to examine the development of both long shoots and short shoots; to investigate the structural homology between the spines, the cataphylls, the simple leaves, and the pinnately-compound leaves present in Berberis s.
Cataphyll single, slightly furrowed; opening lengthwise;
Cataphylls three; apex acute; thick claw-like ligular fibrous extensions.
alternating cycles of cataphylls and persistent foliar bases (Fig.
Cataphylls triangular basally, linear-lanceolate apically, 3-8 cm
It is also important to note that cataphyll traces are not girdling in extant cycads (Stevenson, 1990b).
Some of the seeds still show the remains of their desiccating sarcotestae (c) Apex of a coning Encephalartos friderici-guilielml plant showing emerging cataphylls around the base of each cone, as well as a layer of tomcntum or "wool" between the older cataphylls lower down (d) The damaged stem of an Encephalartos transvenosus individual from which bark has been harvested for traditional medicine.
Bulb subglobose, 20-30 x 20-30 mm, prolonged in a short collar up to 2 cm, sheathing the proximal part of the under*grown stem; cataphylls brown to stramineous, broadly ovate, apex cute, often fimbriate.
1 cm in diameter, very rigid, bearing subtriangular-ovate cataphylls, acuminate, straminaeous, coriaceous, entire, forming an inconspicuous crest.
The D tillers were completely enclosed by either cataphylls (if they will become rhizomes) or non-emergent leaves (if they will become leafy F tillers; Fig.
Stem compressed in the distal region (cuneate), internodes short, 1-4 cm; basal cataphylls absent.
Cataphylls chartaceous, narrowly triangular, light beige-yellow to beige tomentose, to 10 cm long, and 3 cm wide at base.
The following traits were observed (Andreata & Pereira 1990): number of hyaline cataphylls formed in the primary axis, characteristics of the cotyledonary sheath, number and shape of young leaves, aerial stem ramification, formation of underground stems and distinction among primary and adventitious roots, as well as their establishment.
the floral bracts in the fertile part of the inflorescence in Vriesea splendens and the cataphylls along the stolons of Aechmea distichantha.
Stem strongly quadrangular to keeled, intercalary cataphylls absent, internodes short, 2-4 cm; 1(-2) pairs of basal cataphylls.
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