Metformin protect against PTZ-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration: Mitochondrial changes occurs after the activation of caspases
In contrast to T47D cell lines, MCF7 cell lines with tiliroside of 50 [micro]g/ml occurred weak expression of Caspase
8 (Figure 6) moreover Caspase
9 was not expressed.
are activated in a hierarchy order, in which initiator caspases
-8 and -10) function to cleave effector caspases
-3 and -7), the latter in turn degrade a number of intercellular protein substrates and lead to the classical morphological changes of apoptosis (Figures 1 and 2) [5,6].
Immunohistochemical staining performed on 4-[micro]m, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections using P53 & Caspase
3 antibodies at 1:50 dilution (DAKO, Carpinteria, CA).
Adam, "Inhibition of caspase
activity induces a switch from apoptosis to necrosis," FEBS Letters, vol.
are cysteine proteases that play crucial role in apoptotic cell death.
The researchers determined that Legionella pneumophila bacteria somehow suppress activation of caspases
4 and 5 in human cells but, if the enzymes are added back into immune cells, they set off the same fusion events--those also seen in mice --that will kill the bacteria.
Measured responses included activation of ERK and JNK, mitogen-activated protein kinases involved in cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death); activation of caspases
8 and 9, enzymes that also are involved in apoptosis; and release of prolactin, a hormone that helps regulate hundreds of biological functions, including metabolism, reproduction, and lactation.
Various methods to inhibit apoptosis including the cell surface Fas receptor (FAS) pathway inhibitors (also known as CD95L pathway inhibitor), caspase
inhibitors, overexpression of anti-apoptotic genes and small interfering ribonucleic acid (RNA) therapy are discussed.
are cysteine proteases that mediate apoptotic cell death, including neurons.
activity was determined on the basis of transformed ability of caspase
3, 8 and 9 (Beyotime, China).
The overreactors ramp up production of an executioner protein called caspase
and eventually commit cellular suicide.
The members of evolutionarily conserved inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family are endogenous caspase
inhibitors and inhibit apopotosis.
is a family of cysteine proteases, with specific cysteine residue that cleaves proteins after the aspartic acid residue, a specificity which is not normal among proteases to produce the active mature caspases
Specific topics include the age-dependence of neuronal apoptosis and of caspase
activation, the significant role of apoptosis-inducing factor for brain damage following focal cerebral ischemia, the role of [micro]-calpain I and lysosomal cathepsins in hippocampal neuronal necrosis after transient global ischemia in primates, mitochondrial damage in traumatic central nervous system injury, hypoglycemic neuronal death, and the suspected role of a multi-functional protein--Tumor Suppressor p53--in seizure-induced neuronal cell death.