However, the population of A + PI- cells and the expression of cleaved caspase
3, the specific protein in apoptosis pathway, increased significantly, suggesting that Nec-1 may induce apoptosis.
In another study, immunohistochemical evaluation was performed 24 hours after kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure to assess caspase
and calpain activation, it was reported that caspase
activation was not found in the acute phase of SE, but that calpain activation was found and that calpain, a calcium-dependent protease, had a role in the early period of cell damage after SE (37).
Hepatitis C virus infection induces apoptosis through a Bax-triggered, mitochondrion-mediated, caspase
IL-1[beta]: interleukin-1[beta]; IL-18: interleukin-18; IL- 17: interleukin-17; NLRP3: NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3; ASC, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase
recruitment domain; BBB: blood-brain barrier; GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
Metformin protect against PTZ-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration: Mitochondrial changes occurs after the activation of caspases
To further investigate apoptosis caused by the PFOS and ZnO-NPs in zebrafish embryos, the caspase
activity was measured using specific chromogenic substrates.
Xie et al., "Quercetin induces apoptosis by activating caspase
3 and regulating Bcl-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 pathways in human HL-60 cells," Acta Biochimica of Biophysica Sinica, vol.
A previous study showed that TRAIL mediates apoptosis through activation of caspase
, cytochrome C release, and PARP-1 cleavage in human tumor cells at acidic pH [49, 50].
functions in cell death and disease," Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, vol.
Ahn et al., "Mutational analysis of caspase
1,4, and 5 genes in common human cancers," Human Pathology, vol.
Consequently, the apoptosis mechanism by extrinsic pathways was mediated by Caspase
8 and 9.
The apoptosis mechanism was analyzed with caspase
However, there is no significant effect in low concentration, but in high concentrations Hg is strongly toxic to cells due to its ability to bind water channel proteins, interfere with mitochondrial activity, and induce oxidative stress, which triggers ROS generation .Heavy metals also have impact to the microalgal cellular activities such as cell viability, membrane structure and properties .When the cells get stressed with the environment, they can cause apoptosis or known as programmed cell death (PCD) to occur which it may commit suicide by forming bleb or swell cells and caspase
enzyme act as an activator to start the apoptosis process which this enzyme can split a set of proteins and the cells undergo the DNA fragmentation and nucleus integration .
These findings are in accordance with  who found that the beta- carotene blocked the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and decreased the activation of Caspase
Among two apoptosis pathways, including extrinsic (receptor-mediated) and intrinsic (mitochondria-driven) pathway, the extrinsic pathway is activated upon ligation of the cells surface death receptor(s), which in turn activates downstream effector mechanism orchestrated by the caspase
family of cysteine proteases (Figure 1) .