Challenges Reason(s) Path loss Geometric spreading/Energy loss Shadowing Random distribution of objects in 3D space Noisy channel Human made noise/Ambient noise/Other noises Hard channel fading Multipath Inter-Symbol -Interference (ISI) High communication rate in low bandwidth Non-fixed delay Non-fixed speed of carrier wave
Doppler shift Non-fixed frequency of carrier wave
Challenges Effect(s) Path loss Low bandwidth/Low data rate Shadowing Low bandwidth/Low data rate Noisy channel Low data rate (Hard detection) Low data rate Hard channel fading (Hard detection) Inter-Symbol -Interference (ISI) Low data rate (Hard detection) Non-fixed delay Low data rate (Hard detection) Doppler shift Low data rate (Hard detection) Table 4.
Summoning memories of my days in military communications, I knew that carrier waves
are loaded with information.
Besides the wave profile appears to be different in terms of density of the carrier waves
as we compare wave profile in Figure 8 to the one in Figure 10, the extreme positions are also significantly dissimilar.
equation with frequency, [[omega].sub.C], and peak amplitude, [A.sub.C], is given by
(1) Discrete multitone modulation/demodulation format: A format that divides data among multiple subcarriers (carrier waves
), and multi-level modulation is used for each subcarrier to achieve high transmission speeds.
A carrier wave
is compared with a sinusoidal reference wave to turn the switches on or off.
Where [v.sub.e] is the group velocity of the particle, [v.sub.c] is the phase speed of the carrier wave
in the coordinate of (x', t').
We denote the wave vectors of the left- and right-going incident carrier waves
as [k.sub.l] and [k.sub.r], respectively; therefore, the wave vector of newly developed carrier wave
[k.sub.c] has to satisfy the phase-matching condition: [k.sub.c] ~ [k.sub.n] = [m.sub.l][k.sub.l] + [m.sub.r][k.sub.r] for maximal amplitudes, where [m.sub.l,r] are the integers determined by the order of harmonics.
For multilevel converters, in order to obtain equal conduction durations for all the cells of an arm, it is necessary to use "n " carrier waves
dephased by [T.sub.p]/n and, thus, stability for capacitors [C.sub.1], ..., [C.sub.n] is attained.
Characterizing the 2001 attacks on US business and military targets as acts of religious war, scholars of religion and other contributors present essays on themes that the US administration sent out to the world on the carrier waves
of the blasts.
5 GRAND OPENINGS, CARRIER WAVES
, (MUSEUM MODERNER KUNST STIFTUNG LUDWIG WIEN, 2008) Among artists "working within a group," Grand Openings-- whose core members are Ei Arakawa, Jutta Koether, Jay Sanders, Emily Sundblad, and Stefan Tcherepnin--follows the perfect recipe for pure, formalist conduct combined with narrative procedures.
Using NASA's Deep Space Network, Italian physicists Bruno Bertotti, Luciano Iess, and Paolo Tortora sent radio carrier waves
to Cassini for many days and precisely measured the minute frequency shifts in the returned signal.
Similarly, Norcliffe's use of the theoretical concept of "carrier waves
" to explain technological change poses certain problems.
At present, each relay station handles a maximum of six i-mode-related carrier waves
, allowing six people to access the service at once via the station.
The message could be encoded in carrier waves
, modulated signals like those of AM or FM transmissions, or in pulses that would carry further given the same amount of energy.