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a slender stalk that furnishes an axis for a carpel

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Intact fruits not seen; samaras alike, except samara coming from anterior carpel bearing persistent style; samara obcordate in outline, with three subequal wings (two lateral and one dorsal) 8-10 mm long, 3-4 mm wide, loosely hairy with some hairs persistent at maturity, especially on nut and base of wings; wings membranous with reticulate venation, distinct distally, connate proximally; each samara bearing a slender cartilaginous ventral carpophore from base along midline to place of attachment of samara to receptacle.
The carpophores, ascospores and mycorrhizas were identified with a stereoscopic microscope (Leica WildMZ8) and a microscope (Leica LeitzDMRB) following the descriptions and recommendations proposed by Agerer (1987-2002), Montecchi and Sarasini (2000) and Riousset et al.
Their vegetative system is barely visible, but if conditions are appropriate, they occasionally develop a well-formed fruiting body (mushrooms, toadstools, or carpophores), although the commonly designated stump mushrooms are annual or even perennial.
Field studies have shown that carpophores of ectomycorrhizal fungi are able to accumulate heavy metals in high concentrations, when these fungi are present in metal polluted sites (Ernst, 1985).
The objective of the present work is therefore to explain more fully the impact of soil on the productivity of Tuber melanosporum carpophores through a quantitative statistical estimation of the influence of conventional surface horizon properties (granulometric texture, pH, calcareous fractions, organic carbon, total nitrogen, exchangeable cations).