The mean, standard deviation and range of the distances (mm) between the pharyngeal tubercle and foramen ovale (PT-FO), foramen lacerum (PT-FL), occipital condyle (PT-OC), carotid canal
(PT-CC), jugular foramen (PT-JF) and hypoglossal canal (PT-HC); and between the foramen magnum and occipital condyle (FM-OC) and hypoglossal canal (FM-HC).
Such patients often demonstrate absence of the bony carotid canal
on imaging and are at increased risk for cerebral ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage.
The present study seeks to establish the morphometric profile of the jugular foramen, foramen magnum, ovale, spinosum and external opening of carotid canal
regarding anteroposterior and lateromedial diameters of the adult Muisca skulls of the Tibanica anthropological collection at Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia, which actually consists of approximately 600 individuals (Sanabria Medina, 2013).
foramen ovale, carotid canal
and jugular foramen on the dry adult South Indian skulls (Figure 2).
Subsequent MRI and computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a destructive right petrous apex lesion with extension into the carotid canal
and the medial epitympanum up to the Meckel cave.
Radiological investigations (magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), computed tomography (CT) and angiogram) revealed a 6 cm x 4 cm right proximal petrous (carotido-tympanic) internal carotid pseudo-aneurysm eroding the right petrous-mastoid bone, carotid canal
, middle ear cavity and mastoid air cells.
 Considering the extent of disease in this case, wide surgical excision of tumour was not possible due to involvement of carotid canal
and intracerebral invasion.
The carotid canal
was intact with no evidence of an aberrant carotid artery.
Abducens nerve paralysis due to giant aneurysm in the medial carotid canal
. Case report.
(4) In the meantime, a petrous apex granuloma may erode into the jugular foremen, carotid canal
, and the internal auditory canal prior to diagnosis.
The lesion also involved the right petrous temporal bone with destruction of the right carotid canal
, right jugular canal and occipital bone near the jugular foramen.
Extracranial complications are seen due to the spread of infection to the cervical spine, nasopharynx, carotid canal
The patient's left carotid canal
had been fractured and the surrounding sympathetic plexus injured in the accident, resulting in an overactive parasympathetic system.
Along with the carotid sheath, it ascended to the base of the skull and was attached around the margins of the carotid canal
and jugular foramen and to the anterior aspect of the base of the styloid process.
Subclasses C 1 through C4 designate the degree of extension to the carotid canal
. C1 tumors are associated with a slight erosion of the posterior wall of the vertical canal segment; C2 tumors have completely eroded the vertical canal segment; C3 tumors also involve the horizontal segment; and C4 tumors extend to the cavernous sinus with involvement of the foramen lacerum.