The current gold standard of diagnosing cardiac syncope
is correlation with electrocardiography (ECG).
About half the time, diagnosis is predicted correctly with vasovagal syncope, postural syncope, and cardiac syncope
. About 30 percent of cases are suspected, and 20 percent are unknown, which means further testing and evaluation are needed (through ECG, EEG, MRI, etc.
Syncope of children can be divided into several major categories: autonomic neurally-mediated syncope, cardiac syncope
, cerebral syncope, unexplained syncope, etc.
The four main life-threatening causes of syncope are: (i) cardiac syncope
(arrhythmia related or structural); (ii) massive haemorrhage with haemodynamic instability; (iii) pulmonary embolism; and (iv) subarachnoid haemorrhage (which should be suspected if a patient presents with syncope after a headache).
"The main indications include repeated episodes of unexplained syncope, syncope with injury, and syncope with special kinds of loss of consciousness such as differentiating between cardiac syncope
It's important to realize that neurally mediated syncope and orthostatic intolerance to medications are more common than cardiac syncope
, even in patients with coronary heart disease.
(1) Natural history studies show that once classic symptoms develop, average survival decreases to 5 years with the onset of angina, 3 years after cardiac syncope
, and 2 years after heart failure.
The majority of the patients suffer from cardiac syncope
. Patients with organic heart diseases--such as coronary, valvular, or congenital heart diseases--or cardiomyopathy, are easier to diagnose than patients with cardiac conduction system disease (arrhythmia).
To be sure, this is not the place to look for details of cardiac syncope
, vertigo or the recent advances made in our understanding of the pathophysiology of basal ganglia disease but, to be fair, that is not the author's intention.
, that happens when one has a heart condition that affects the blood flow to the brain, such as arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat), structural heart disease (issues in how the heart is formed), blood clot, and more;
Objective: To determine the value of bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein in diagnosis of cardiac syncope
in patients presenting with syncope or presyncope.