Cardiac output was decreased in 18 patients (25.7%), normal in 39 patients (55.7%) and increased in 13 patients (18.6%), whereas in 70 patients, 18 patients (25.7%) had decreased cardiac index
, 26 patients (37.1%) had normal cardiac index
and 26 patients (37.1%) had increased cardiac index
Ba: baseline time point; HR: heart rate; MABP: mean arterial blood pressure; CI: cardiac index
; PVPI: pulmonary vascular permeability index; EVLWI: extravascular lung water index.
IVC collapsibility performs comparably to other "dynamic" predictors of volume responsiveness such as PPV and SVV when assessed by an increase in cardiac index
of at least 10% in ventilated patients (Table 4).
Then the Aesculon monitor was connected to the electrodes for continuous display of bioimpedance cardiac index
The dramatic deterioration in our patient was caused by a progressive cardiac failure with increased vascular resistance and low cardiac index
leading to a secondary low-output syndrome.
Table 1--The means and standard deviations of the cardiac index
(CI) ([Lm.sup-2][min.sup.-1]), the mean difference (bias) ([Lm.sup-2][min.sup.-1]) and standard deviation, the percentage error and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) calculated using thermodilution (TD).
"Previous research has indicated that lower cardiac index
may be associated with abnormal brain aging, negative changes in the brain's white matter, smaller brain volume, and worse cognitive performance.
The hypertensive patients had significantly lower values of cardiac output (4.4 [+ or -] 1.5 l/min) and cardiac index
(2.6 [+ or -] 1.0 l/min/[m.sup.2]) compared to normotensive subjects (4.7 [+ or -] 1.5 l/min and 2.8 [+ or -] 0.8 l/min/[m.sup.2], respectively).
(14) Despite the damaging effect of CPB, preservation of the left ventricular contractility and maintaining perfect cardiac index
may explain the drop-off in cardiac enzymes and improvement of organ function in on-pump CABG patients.
Individualized goal-directed therapy (IGDT) utilizes hemodynamic parameters such as stroke volume, cardiac output, cardiac index
, peripheral vascular resistance, blood pressure, and the variation of stroke volume to optimize volume status, myocardial contractility, and tissue perfusion.
And patients in both active treatment groups showed significant reductions in pulmonary vascular resistance as well as significant increases in the cardiac index
, compared with those in the placebo group.
Right heart catheterisation revealed a poor haemodynamic situation (mean pulmonary artery pressure: 63 mmHg, wedge pressure: 10 mmHg, cardiac index
: 1.6 1/minute/[m.sup.2], Sv[O.sub.2]: 47%, pulmonary vascular resistance: 1843 dyn/s/[cm.sup.5]).
Additionally, catheterization profile data between diastolic and nondiastolic dysfunctions did not reveal any statistically significant variables between the two groups, including systolic pulmonary artery pressures (sPAP) (P = 0.77), diastolic pulmonary artery pressures (dPAP) (P = 0.68), mean pulmonary artery pressures (mPAP) (P = 0.84), mean PCWP (P = 0.17), cardiac output (P = 0.23), cardiac index
(P = 0.21), and left ventricular ejection fraction (P = 0.99)(Table 3).
Calculated methods of estimation of central and peripheral hemodynamics according to standard formulas (stroke output (SO)), cardiac index
(CI), cardiac output (CO), general peripheral vascular resistance (GPVR), discharge fraction (DF) were conducted.
Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by Cockroft-Gault (CG) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study formulas, echocardiographic measures of left and right ventricles (LV, RV) and non-invasive measurement of cardiac index
(CI) by echocardiegraphy and impedance cardiography were assessed.