This new recognition of the workings of our forest carbon cycle
has come as a wake-up call to policy-makers.
Without a carbon cycle
and greenhouse gases to retain heat on the two moons, they would need so much energy from the sun to thaw that the radiation would send them directly from frozen to scorching without experiencing a period of habitability.
The first is the biospheric carbon cycle
. Photosynthetic plants and phytoplankton convert carbon dioxide from the air into organic carbon compounds that fuel their growth.
Natural biological carbon cycles
, on the other hand, run at seasonal or annual time scales - we can see them happening in our daily lives: photosynthesis in green leaves, respiration, veldfires and combustion of wood, rotting plants, and so on.
The map will help scientists build an inventory of how much carbon the world's forests store and how fast those carbon cycles
through ecosystems and back into the atmosphere.
However, even with the lack of data I mentioned above, we know enough about the carbon cycles
of permanent crops to predict that winegrape production will result in a net production of [CO.sub.2] equivalents.
They represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and may exert a large influence on global carbon cycles
because they store about one-third of the global terrestrial soil organic carbon (1,395 Gt [3.07 x [10.sup.15] lb]).
The objectives of the book are to: 1) discuss the role of photosynthesis in regulating atmospheric concentrations of C[O.sub.2] and [O.sub.2] (most chapters address various aspects of this ratio); 2) promote research and discussion about how the various [C.sub.2], [C.sub.3], [C.sub.4], and CAM carbon cycles
and algal C[O.sub.2] concentrating mechanisms could be integrated to help explain the regulation of atmospheric C[O.sub.2]; and 3) increase exchange among biochemists concerned primarily with detailed reactions of photosynthetic C[O.sub.2] metabolism, and geologists, plant ecophysiologists, ecologists, and others concerned about increasing atmospheric C[O.sub.2].