The fracture is caused by avulsion of the meniscotibial portion of the middle third of the lateral capsular ligament
, with possible associated fractures of the fibular head or Gerdy's tubercle.
These include the middle third of the capsular ligament
, the lateral head of the gastrocnemius tendon, the lateral meniscus, and the posterolateral joint capsule.
Four major ligaments of the spine are the anterior longitudinal ligament, the posterior longitudinal ligament, the supraspinous ligament, and the capsular ligaments
of the apophyseal/facet joints.
Disruption of capsular ligaments
causes abnormal motion between the proximal and distal rows in the wrist and are termed "nondissociative carpal instability.
The disease manifests itself as inflammation of the synovial surface of the joint capsule, the capsular ligaments
, the periarticular tendons and bursa.