In conclusion, undiagnosed posterior sternoclavicular dislocation was treated successfully in a young woman athlete by open reduction, clavicular resection, and costa-clavicular ligament tenodesis with capsular ligament
transfer into the clavicular medullary channel.
These include the middle third of the capsular ligament
, the lateral head of the gastrocnemius tendon, the lateral meniscus, and the posterolateral joint capsule.
Four major ligaments of the spine are the anterior longitudinal ligament, the posterior longitudinal ligament, the supraspinous ligament, and the capsular ligaments
of the apophyseal/facet joints.
Disruption of capsular ligaments
causes abnormal motion between the proximal and distal rows in the wrist and are termed "nondissociative carpal instability.
The disease manifests itself as inflammation of the synovial surface of the joint capsule, the capsular ligaments
, the periarticular tendons and bursa.