Cottonwoods under box elder supported 30X more cankerworms per shoot than trees in the open, with cottonwoods under conspecifics showing statistically intermediate cankerworm densities (Kruskal-Wallis H = 13.82, P = 0.001; Fig.
In this study we document associational susceptibility among hosts of the fall cankerworm (Alsophila pometaria).
Key words: Acer negundo; Alsophila pometaria; associational resistance; associational susceptibility, box elder; cottonwood; dietary breadth; fall cankerworm; plant-herbivore interactions; Populus; preference hierarchy; spillover.
The first goal of this paper is to document an example of associational susceptibility using the hosts of a common forest pest, the fall cankerworm (Alsophila pometaria).
Revelation mentions locusts and scorpions being emitted from the "bottomless pit," and Nahum says that the sinners of Nineveh will be devoured by fire as if they were cankerworms
Nigeria shall not return to the days of the cankerworms
again in Jesus name.
Tenders are invited for tree banding for cankerworms
Azalea mites appear on azaleas, cankerworms
on elms and maples, lace bugs on the mountain ash.
These leaf-eating worms are similar to fall cankerworms
(only a mother moth or an entomologist would bother to tell them apart) in that the adult moths are active around Thanksgiving time.
'The incalculable costs to the nation of widespread corruption, cultism, gangsterism, robbery, kidnapping and drug addiction, etc., dictate that serious efforts be made to tackle at our tertiary institutions' level, the anti-social cankerworms
crippling our development efforts and keeping us in the league of the stunted, rather than among the giants in the comity of nations', he said.
If we are making some progress, should we now jettison that progress and bring back the same people, the same devourers and the same cankerworms
that almost ate Nigeria off.
Once an infestation is discovered, IPM principles suggest using biorational treatments as a first response (e.g., horticultural oil for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, or B.T., Bacillus thuringiensis, for early stage lepidopteron pests, such as Cankerworms
, Eastern Tent Caterpillars, and Forest Tent Caterpillars).
Early in the experiment, the entire research area experienced an outbreak of fall cankerworm (Alsophila pometana Harris), and site 3 experienced especially severe herbivory.
It is possible that arthropod predators showed a strong numerical response to the cankerworm outbreak, which may have been more common within exclosures given the marginally greater spring leaf damage on exclosure trees.
Although we censused herbivores during known peaks in their abundance, the early cankerworm outbreak progressed so rapidly that it was largely over when we conducted the spring census.