still resolutely loyal to their "tribe" and in particular Williams's mouthpiece, the Mighty Sparrow, could not resist the opportunity to defend "the doctor" and in the process to depict the Creole nationalist movement as an Afro-creole movement.
Local historians, artists, and calypsonians
have recorded the Portuguese presence in Trinidad in writing, on canvas (by 6 artists), and in song (including 4 calypsos).
From the horse's mouth: an analysis of certain significant aspects in the development of the calypso and society as gleaned from personal communication with some outstanding calypsonians
. Diego Martin, Trinidad: Juba Publications, c2003.
Jean and Dinah Who Have Been Locked Away in a World Famous Disco Since 1956 Speak Their Minds Publicly by Tony Hall (with Rhoma Spencer and Susan Sandiford) radically redefines black womanhood with the portraits of two female calypsonians
. On Calypso Monday, the dying Dinah does not want to put on the mask again.
One of the highlights of carnival is a performance by 15 musicians from the Association of British Calypsonians
For other popular cultural artists with a Caribbean heritage, such as dub poets and traditional calypsonians
(who are often seen as social prophets), and reggae artists with a Garveyestic or Rastafarian motif, such as Bob Marley and Winston Rodney, alias Burning Spears, the term Babylon became a more dominant metaphor for depicting the whole experience of oppression and the struggle of black people in the West, and in the so-called third world.
Kitchener's lineup included popular calypsonians
Mighty Killer, Lord Zigfield, and Spoiler, but until the doors opened, no one knew who would prevail.
In "Man talking to Man," Rohlehr notes in the 1970s, even the calypsonians
, staunch black nationalists, and PnM loyalists, could no longer reconcile the dissonances between rhetoric and reality, and began to conclude that "madness" was the explanation for the "bewilderng paradoxes of civic life." as the decade progressed, "[r]eflections on the rumored madness of the leader eventually became contemplation of the literal madness visible on the streets" [emphasis added].
While Gadsby treats some male writers who, like Lovelace, have for the most part remained in the Caribbean, she gives no attention to Caribbean women writers who write from that base, with the exception of the calypsonians
. Such a chapter would have balanced her focus on Caribbean women writers in England, Canada, and the US.
Lord Kitchener and the Mighty Sparrow may not be known as well worldwide as Bob Marley, but the calypsonians
are international stars of contemporary song nonetheless.
They featured a picture of the parrot, its Latin name, and a simple message, "Save Our National Bird." Calypsonians
and local entertainers flooded the airways with songs about the forest and parrot.
Chapter 11 is called Conclusion, but is more an attempt to cover some important things that are only briefly mentioned earlier in the study like the frivolous calypso and the different roles or "masks" of calypsonians
. Appendix 1 "Text and Context" is fifty-eight pages of calypso texts transcribed from records with comments.
One appendix lists record manufacturers and distributors along with their addresses (many of which, unfortunately, the compiler was unable to track down); another allows the reader to find prominent calypsonians
' actual names by looking up their stage names, and vice versa; and a third lists sources of steel band recordings.