Maintaining a low concentration of calcium within cells is vital to their survival and this is achieved by calcium pumps
on the plasma membrane.
The researchers' starting point was the calcium pump
located in the cell membrane of the model plant thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), but the regulatory mechanism also applies to the corresponding calcium pump
in humans and animals.
As the heart ages, these free radicals can greatly alter how well the cellular calcium pumps
on the sarcoplasmic reticulum work.
Certain proteins, such as the calcium pump
protein and the contractile protein myosin, appear to change with age which may account for some alterations in the function of the aging heart.
The key role played by calcium pumps
in controlling of cytoplasmic calcium ions, regulation of calcium pump
activity will have profound effects on calcium signaling (12).
"The small amount of calcium released per stimulus is the key element that permits the calcium pumps
in midshipman swimbladder muscle to keep up over long periods of high-frequency stimulation," Rome explained in the report.
(2003), 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) antagonises inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release, inhibits calcium pumps
and has a use-dependent and slowly reversible action on store-operated calcium entry channels.
Furthermore, memory formation and retrieval were amended both by calcium chelation as a therapy and by pharmaceutical inhibition of internal calcium pumps
. (9), (10) When the calcium-channel blocker nimodipine was used by itself, learning was proved to take place faster in aged animals treated with the drug.
Samuel Denmeade at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, and colleagues have spent 15 years engineering an analogue of thapsigargin, the plant's active ingredient, which works by shutting down essential calcium pumps
LITTLE Abbie was killed by a massive overdose of calcium pumped
into her during heart surgery.
Furthermore, impairments in the calcium sequestration and extrusion pumps of either the ER (SERCA pumps) or the plasma membrane energy-dependent calcium pumps
(PMCA) have reduced activity in aged neurons.
Thapsigargin inhibits the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase family of calcium pumps
European, American, and Australian researchers in a number of medical specialties, prominently pharmacology, discuss such aspects as fluorescent indicators, genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator proteins, calcium signaling networks in yeast, methods for studying calcium pumps
, apoptosis, and calcium entry channels and drug discovery.
Historically, SPCA2 were assumed to be redundant and less essential versions of better-known calcium pumps
that scavenge calcium inside of cells everywhere in the body and store it away.
We will test these conclusions by analyzing larger sample sizes, studying the dose-dependence of the effects of ryanodine, and applying agents that block calcium pumps
. Early differentiation of serotonergic neurons is observed in other molluscs (7, 8) and may be regulated in a manner similar to that in Spisula embryos.