Type B was found in 108 calcanei (54%), out of which B1 was found in 44 calcanei (22%) (21 right and 23 left); B2 was found in 64 calcanei (32%) (32 right and 32 left).
Type C found in 2 calcanei (1%) (1 right and 1 left).
[7,15] In this study, I found that type B (54%) is the most common pattern of talar facets of calcanei. Type A pattern [45%] next common and type C [1%] is very rare pattern of talar articular facet of calcanei.
[19,20] This technique is suitable for Europeans who predominantly have calcanei with type A pattern (with separate anterior and middle facets).
These racial differences in patterns of talar articular facets for calcanei were probably genetically determined and not a developmental response to physical activities.
In addition, the anteroposterior length and transverse width of the talus and calcaneus, together with the width, length and depth of the sulcus tali and sulcus calcanei were determined using a digital caliper accurate to 0.01 mm (Fig.
While for the left and right calcanei the following types of facet were observed: A1; 10 %, 7.4 %; A2, 10 %, 14.8 %; A3, 16.7 %, 11.1 %; A4, 3.3 %, 3.7 %; B1, 30 %, 22.2 %; B2, 30 %, 40.8 %; and C, 0 %, 0 %, respectively (Table I).
For the left and right calcanei the anteroposterior length and transverse width were: 76.07 [+ or -] 5.44 mm and 43.92 [+ or -] 3.97 mm, and 75.69 [+ or -] 6.76 mm and 45.84 [+ or -] 4.21 mm, respectively.
In the current study of Anatolian tali and calcanei the majority of talar articular facets were type B (B1, 55.9 %; B2, 42.4 %) on both left and right sides.
The talar articular facets in Isan Thai dried calcanei investigated were classified into only 3 types (Types 1, 2, and 4) as shown in Fig.
However, the reports gained from those samples including patterns of talar articulating facets of dried calcanei are still limited as compared to the huge bone collection of our department.
In conclusion, the recent study has provided the first report of patterns or types of facets on the superior articular surface of Thai dried calcanei.
We would like to thank the Osteological Collection Unit, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand for providing the identified human dried calcanei. This study was financially supported by the invitation research grant (number: IN 58232) from Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University to Assistant Professor Dr.