Studies included in the review suggest that caffeine intoxication
can lead to heart palpitations, hypertension, nausea and vomiting, convulsions, psychosis, and in rare cases, death.
Additionally, genetic factors may also contribute to an individual's vulnerability to caffeine related disorders including caffeine intoxication
, dependence, and withdrawal (Reissiga, Straina, & Griffiths, 2009).
According to LiveScience.com, which combed through the manual, restlessness, nervousness, excitement, red face, gastrointestinal upset, muscle twitching, rambling speech, sleeplessness, and rapid and irregular heartbeat are all symptoms of caffeine intoxication
Doses over 250 mgs consumed over a short period of time can trigger a condition called "caffeine intoxication
." This is a clinical syndrome which is marked by nervousness, anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, gastrointestinal upset, tremors, rapid heartbeat, restlessness and pacing.
The DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) criteria for caffeine-induced anxiety disorder centers on the experience of prominent anxiety symptoms during caffeine intoxication
or withdrawal that is not the result of a preexisting anxiety disorder.
However, because they are classed as dietary supplements and therefore not subject to Food and Drug Administration regulations like other caffeine products, energy drinks constitute a greater-than-average risk for caffeine intoxication
, a recognized clinical syndrome associated with higher doses.
As with the increased need for nicotine, the co-ingestion of caffeine and alcohol may therefore facilitate increased alcohol consumption, which may then directly or indirectly lead to aggression and violence or even self-induced harm (including excessive caffeine intoxication
In a survey of 795 undergraduate students, self-reported measures of masculinity and risk taking behaviours were positively associated with frequency of energy drink consumption (CJ., Reissing, EC., Strain, RR Griffiths., 2009).Energy drinks are prompted by the potential adverse consequences of caffeine use as caffeine intoxication
include nervousness, anxiety, restless, insomnia, gastrointestinal upset, tremors, tachycardia, psychomotor agitation and rare cases, death (BM.