Studies included in the review suggest that caffeine intoxication
can lead to heart palpitations, hypertension, nausea and vomiting, convulsions, psychosis, and in rare cases, death.
com, which combed through the manual, restlessness, nervousness, excitement, red face, gastrointestinal upset, muscle twitching, rambling speech, sleeplessness, and rapid and irregular heartbeat are all symptoms of caffeine intoxication
Caffeine poisoning or reports of caffeine intoxication
are no longer uncommon in the U.
The DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) criteria for caffeine-induced anxiety disorder centers on the experience of prominent anxiety symptoms during caffeine intoxication
or withdrawal that is not the result of a preexisting anxiety disorder.
However, because they are classed as dietary supplements and therefore not subject to Food and Drug Administration regulations like other caffeine products, energy drinks constitute a greater-than-average risk for caffeine intoxication
, a recognized clinical syndrome associated with higher doses.
These diagnoses include caffeine intoxication
, caffeine dependence, caffeine-induced sleep disorder, caffeine-induced anxiety disorder, and caffeine withdrawal (Griffiths et al.
Energy drinks are prompted by the potential adverse consequences of caffeine use as caffeine intoxication
include nervousness, anxiety, restless, insomnia, gastrointestinal upset, tremors, tachycardia, psychomotor agitation and rare cases, death (BM.
However, in most of the cases we looked at for our review, caffeine intoxication
was thought to play the most important role.