And busing minimized the involvement of the black community in the education of its children.
As white flight occurred and busing continued, busing became an exercise in transporting black students across town to sit next to other black students who were moving into changing white neighborhoods.
"As far as them busing kids from one area to another area, I think that is so stupid," said Mills, whose neighborhood is divided among the attendance areas of four different elementary schools.
Some black families and community activists are now asking the district to lessen the burden of busing as part of a larger discussion about improving the quality of education for black students.
Lukas puts busing in the context of a longstanding tension between two fundamental values: equality and community.
They, too, are good--in fact, outstandingly good--people, but, though they support busing, when the orders come for one of their kids, they use their influence to get him exempted.