After LA burst pacing, all 10 canines (100%) could be induced AF in the Sham group, but only 4 of 10 canines (40%) could be induced AF in the LRDN group (P = 0.011, Figure 6(a)).
Compared with the Sham group (100%), only 40% canines could be induced AF by LA burst pacing in the LRDN group.
We reproducibly induced AF by transesophageal atrial burst pacing in the pentobarbital-anesthetized condition, as reported in several recent reports [12,14-19].
AF Induction by Transesophageal Burst Pacing. A 5-French catheter electrode (Japan Lifeline, Tokyo, Japan) was inserted into the esophagus under the monitoring of an esophageal electrogram and placed to ensure constant atrial capture with the lowest threshold.
While the rate of induction of AF could be increased to 70.9% by [S.sub.1][S.sub.1] 100 ms burst pacing
and to 43.5% by [S.sub.1][S.sub.2] premature pacing at HRA, LAA, LSPV with vagal response (CVTS by [S.sub.1][S.sub.1] 60 ms, 1-4V).