Tumor budding was first recognized in the 1950s as "sprouting" at the invasive edge of carcinomas that may reflect a more rapid tumor growth rate.
Following such morphologic descriptions, outcomes data began to be available in the 1990s, with Hase and colleagues (19) reporting "more severe budding" associated with worse 5-year and 10-year survival rates.
Tumor Budding in Malignant Polyps (pT1) and Preoperative Biopsies
In adenocarcinomas arising in polyps ("malignant polyps"), tumor budding has been associated with increased risk of lymph node metastasis in multiple studies.
Current clinical practice guidelines in oncology issued by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN; version 2.2017) include incorporation of tumor budding in clinical treatment, advising that "tumor budding has been shown to be an adverse histological feature associated with adverse outcome and may preclude polypectomy as an adequate treatment of endoscopically removed malignant polyps." (24) Similar guidelines are currently used in the management of patients with colorectal carcinoma in Japan (JSCCR) and Europe (European Society for Medical Oncology).
Tumor budding has been studied predominantly at the invasive front and is referred to as peritumoral tumor budding.
Tumor Budding in Resection Specimens: Stage I and Stage II Colorectal Carcinoma
Low success rate for budding stone fruit crops in South Ukraine was due to incorrect time of budding.
Generally budding is practiced in the active growing season.
Keeping in view the importance of budding time, this project was initiated to find out the best time of budding for peaches on desi peach rootstock.
A research study highlighting the effect of different time of budding of peach on peach rootstocks was carried out at Malakander farm, N.W.F.P Agricultural University Peshawar.
Topping was also done after 2-3 weeks of the budding with the purpose of diverting the food materials to budding growth.
The green buds were counted after 20 days of budding and the percent bud take success was calculated by using the following formula:
The sprouted buds in each treatment were counted 70 days after budding and sprouting percentage of bud was calculated with the following formula: