For example, at the elite burial site of Begash in eastern Kazakhstan, broomcorn
millet and bread wheat grains were directly dated to the mid third millennium BC, and constitute the earliest record of each of these crops in Central Asia (Frachetti et al.
The findings push back the dates of the two crops' first appearance in Central Asia, suggesting that the herders transported bread wheat from west to east and broomcorn
millet from east to west.
Separate models for each area were conducted to predict chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, broomcorn
, and total THM and to assign a concentration to the distribution system of the municipality where women resided.
Cotton, Peanut, Soybean, Broomcorn
, Vegetables and Fruits Market
That is the story told in this issue of Antiquity, in the curious case of broomcorn
millet (Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute et al.
millet completes its life cycle in a very short (40-90 day) period (Nesbitt & Summers 1988), has the lowest water requirement of any cereal (Baltensperger 2002) and its grains are nutritionally more valuable than wheat, barley or rice (Rachie 1975; Baltensperger 2002; Weber & Fuller 2007).
Despite evidence of some cultural connections with rice-producing sites of the Middle Yangzi, the archaeobotanical remains from Zhongba Phase 1 show a clear reliance on broomcorn
and foxtail millets (over 90 per cent of the total seed assemblage).
However, Heiss and Oeggl (2005) found a single instance of broomcorn
millet (Panicum miliaceum), which simply represents waste from human activities nearby.
Moving in the other direction was the Asian broomcorn
millet (Panicum miliaceum), ultimately of Chinese origin, which had left China on westward trade routes by c.
4000-3000 BC: Cultivation of wheat and broomcorn
millet in Bronze Age Eurasia (Frachetti); Origins of metallurgy in Italy (Dolfini); Bevel-rim bowls for making loaves in Mesopotamia (Goulder); A stone row on Dartmoor, England (Fyfe); Rock art cattle in the Neolithic Sahara (Di Lernia).
in south-west Asia, broomcorn
millet (Panicum miliaceurn) in China, and the earliest directly dated evidence of those grains in central Eurasian archaeological contexts.
Five pre-5000 BC site clusters have been connected with the early farming of millet, either broomcorn
orfi (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail or su (Setaria italica).
Period Site Number Foxtail Broomcorn
Rice of Millet Millet (Oryza Samples (Setaria (Panicum sativa) Takes italics) miliaceum) Longsban Taosi 47 9160 606 30 94% 60% 17% Wangchenggang 59 1416 113 16 37% 25% 7% Erlitou Erlitou 101 5868 961 3240 91% 64% 70% Erligang Wangchenggang 14 1534 160 29 79% 71% 57% Erlitou 18 1285 169 26 89% 89% 33% Period Site Wheat Soybeans (Triticum (Glycine aestivum) max) Longsban Taosi 0 3 4% Wangchenggang 0 140 20% Erlitou Erlitou 2 80 1% 27% Erligang Wangchenggang 191 11 79% 36% Erlitou 6 22 33% 39% Figure 3.
For meat there are cattle and horses and for grains there are foxtail millets and broomcorn
The oldest examples are foxtail millet and broomcorn
millet from Tongsamdong (for location see Figure 1), in a stratified sequence with a series of radiocarbon dates spanning the period from about 4800 to 1700 cal.