Two flocks were brooded
simultaneously and were given same feed purchased from market.
For example, periods of hypoxia (Segura et al., 2014) or severe salinity stress (Chaparro et al., 2014) experienced by brooded
embryos of the gastropod Crepipatella dilatata resulted in significantly slower juvenile growth than that of brooded
embryos that did not suffer such stresses.
A 5-mm-wide black zip tie was used to gently sweep the inside of the mantle to extract larvae to easily determine the development stage of the brooded
larvae (white, early-stage development, or black, late-stage development) (Hopkins 1936, Carson 2010).
(21.06 6.6 days, n=102 intervals from 26 females; median=20 days) (t-test, df=180, t=-0.36, P=0.72), females produced significantly more clutches than males brooded
during both underwater visual census periods (2001: df=37, t=3.32, P=0.002; 2002: df=62, t=7.16, P<0.0001, Table 2).
my keets in the kitchen (having impulsively ordered them).
Days after the Argentine government voiced its support for the peso, Abel Edreira, a farm equipment salesman, sat in his Rosario office and brooded
. While analysts solemnly speculated about the failure of the free market, Edreira had a simpler view.
Thus, the two-locus genotype of each father compared with those observed in his brooded
progeny allowed the maternal allelic contribution to each embryo to be determined by subtraction (Table 2).
While embryo volume of Carduus maenas doubled during incubation, no significant differences in average volume were detected between the early- and late-stage embryos brooded
in each region of the brooding chamber (LE, LI, RE, and RI) ([F.sub.1,596] = 0.003, P = 0.957; [F.sub.1,596] = 0.002, P = 0.912; V =0.013 [+ or -] 0.001 m[m.sup.3] and V = 0.026 [+ or -] 0.002 [mm.sup.3], for early- and late-stage embryos, respectively).
A much lower percentage of farmed oysters brooded
overall (59%) during the 6-mo experimental period.
In addition, except for a 15-minute period between 0337 and 0352, the adult female had brooded
both young throughout the night from 2030 on 1 August until just after sunrise at 0438 the following morning, when she left the nest ledge.
Embryos were more developed and larger in winter than fall, and larger females brooded
larger-sized embryos (Fig.
At another extreme, some species with abbreviated or direct development produce large yolky eggs that are brooded
and hatch as advanced-stage larvae or juveniles.
(1984) collected 25 individuals of the brooding sea anemone Epiactis prolifera and, using allozyme electrophoresis, found that genotype frequencies of the brooded
offspring were consistent with selfing.