This difference in outcome was attributed to associated Bronchopleural fistula
present in 50% of our empyema patients.
 Haris Kalatoudis, Meena Nikhil, Fuad Zeid, and Yousef Shweihat, "Bronchopleural Fistula
Resolution with Endobronchial Valve Placement and Liberation from Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Case Series," Case Reports in Critical Care, vol.
This was interpreted as demonstrating a complex bronchopleural fistula
and associated empyema (Figure 2).
Aho et al., "Closure of a Recurrent Bronchopleural Fistula
Using a Matrix Seeded With Patient-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells," Stem Cells Translational Medicine, June 2016 DOI: 10.5966/sctm.2016-0078
Multi-detector row computed tomographic evaluation of bronchopleural fistula
: correlation with clinical, bronchoscopic, and surgical findings.
He developed bronchopleural fistula
(BPF) and the ICD continued to bubble for a total of three weeks before it was removed.
Nevertheless, bronchopleural fistula
which required prolonged intercostal drainage developed in 4 patients.
There was delayed presentation complicated by a bronchopleural fistula
. Initial treatment with an intercostal underwater drain and attempted bronchoscopic removal of the foreign body was unsuccessful owing to
(2,3) Abscess formation is driven by chronic inflammation of the pleural space, initially causing an empyema, which triggers development of a bronchopleural fistula
allowing exudative material to enter the chest wall.
is a life threatening complication after pneumonectomy with an incidence of about 2-5% and a mortality rate of up to 50%.
But to its credit, the book does outline positioning precautions in the management of bronchopleural fistula
with empyema, a topic which is often absent larger texts.
A bronchopleural fistula
is a serious complication that can substantially lengthen a hospital stay and recovery time, he added.
For closure of the bronchus, in order to diminish the risk of a bronchopleural fistula
, he cut the cartilage of the bronchial stump at several points to prevent their spring-like action, and then used interrupted silk sutures to effect its closure.
Four patients experienced long-term sequelae: hemoptysis caused by aspergilloma necessitating pulmonary resection (1 patient), bronchiectasis and recurrent respiratory infections (2 patients), and bronchopleural fistula
after pneumonectomy (1 patient).