Born at Pittsfield, Massachusetts (1796); graduated from West Point and commissioned in the artillery (1814); distinguished for gallantry at the capture of Fort Erie (July 3-4); promoted captain (1826) and brevetted
major for his successful attack on Fort Drane during the Second Seminole, or Florida, War (1836); during the Mexican War, he fought at the battles of Palo Alto (May 8, 1846) and Resaca de la Palma (May 9); led the storming party which captured the Toma de Independencia at Monterrey (September 20-24); appointed military governor of Jalapa (1847), he defended Puebla against Santa Anna's attack (September 13); commanded military forces in eastern Florida (1852-1853); died there on active duty (August 10, 1853).
Sherman for the expedition against Port Royal, South Carolina (November); commanded the troops besieging Fort Pulaski at Savannah, Georgia, and was brevetted
lieutenant colonel after the fort fell (April 11, 1862); as brigadier general of volunteers, he held commands in West Virginia and Kentucky, and was brevetted
colonel after his successful action at Somerset, Kentucky (March 30, 1863); commander of X Corps and the Department of the South (June) and undertook, with Adm.
George Meade (August); he took command of II Corps in the siege lines around Petersburg (November 1864); brevetted
major general of regulars for gallantry at Sayler's Creek (April 6, 1865), he briefly commanded the District of Pennsylvania before spending some months in charge of the Mississippi River levee system (December 1865-August 1866); mustered out of volunteer service (August 1866); appointed chief of the Corps of Engineers with the rank of brigadier general and held that post until his retirement (June 1879); died in Washington, D.
Stuart's cavalry at Dranesville, Virginia (December 20), and was brevetted
lieutenant colonel; promoted to major general of volunteers and transferred to the Department of the Mississippi (May 1862); commanded the left wing of Gen.
Sterling Price's invasion (October 1864); defeated Price in a series of battles around Jefferson City (October 8-25), culminating in Pleasanton's victory at Westport (October 23); brevetted
brigadier and major general (March 1865), but he reverted to his permanent rank of captain after the war ended; he disliked having to serve under wartime subordinates, and resigned from the army (January 1868); a collector of internal revenue at New York (1869-1870), he then served as a commissioner of internal revenue (1870-1871); employed as the president of the Cincinnati & Terre Haute Railroad (1872-1874), and was promoted to major on the retired list (October 1888); died in Washington, D.