In this article, we report our experience with 7 cases of fourth branchial pouch sinus, and we discuss their presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.
Over a period of 6 years at our institution, 7 patients--4 males and 3 females--were diagnosed with and operated on for a fourth branchial pouch sinus by the team of authors.
In this report, we described the diagnosis and successful management of 2 cases of second branchial cysts in adult Amazon parrots, one likely originating from a remnant of the second branchial cleft and the other from a remnant of the second branchial pouch. These cases constitute, to our knowledge, the first to be reported in birds and in nonmammalian species.
(2,6,8,10-12,26,28-31) Columnar respiratory epithelial tissue is seen in some cases, which might derive from branchial pouch epithelium.
(4) To definitively diagnose a third branchial pouch sinus, direct laryngoscopy is required to identify the opening of the sinus into the pharynx.
Surgical management of a case of third branchial pouch fistula.
The second branchial pouch gives rise to the palatine tonsil and tonsillar fossa.
The third branchial pouch develops into the inferior parathyroid glands and the thymus.
The thymus is derived from the third branchial pouch
, and during embryogenesis it descends from the pharyngeal wall along the carotid sheath into the anterosuperior mediastinum.
We present 3 cases of fourth branchial pouch anomalies, describing their diagnosis, clinical course, and management, and review the literature on these anomalies.
A pseudofistula may develop after iatrogenic or spontaneous rupture of a cervical abscess caused by a branchial pouch sinus.
The pharyngobranchial region, the part of the animal posterior to the mouth and ventral to the orbits and pectoral fins, is generally not well preserved, and the number of branchial pouches
and branchial openings is uncertain.
The thymus commonly shares its origins with the inferior parathyroid glands, both endodermic derivatives of the third pair of branchial pouches
. The thymus develops primarily from the ventral wing of the third pharyngeal pouch, whereas the inferior parathyroid glands develop from the dorsal wings of the same pouch.
Management of anomalies of the third and fourth branchial pouches
. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2004;68(1):43-50.