(2013) mentioned that, middle ear ossicles are visible as foci of mesenchymal condensation within the embryonic branchial arches
. Also in birds, the columellar anlage of Bubulicus ibis appeared as human stapedial anlage (Salah EL-Din and Dakrory, 2015).
Dulguerov, "Management of congenital third branchial arch
anomalies: a systematic review," Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, vol.
The hypobranchial and the ceratobranchial form the lower limb of a branchial arch
and the epibranchial forms the upper limb (Sakamoto 1984).
Hemifacial microsomia (HM) is a congenital craniofacial malformation caused by hypoplasia of anatomical structures deriving from the first and second branchial arches
. As a result, HM involves facial skeleton, soft tissues, ear, and cranial nerves, thus resulting in the absence or insufficiency of these components .
Developmental anomalies of structures derived from the upper half of the first branchial arch
are common, giving rise to deformities such as cleft lip or cleft palate.10 However, abnormal or incomplete development of structures derived from the lower half of the first branchial arch
is rare.11 These anomalies may arise from failure of fusion of the first pair of branchial arches
or a failure of mesodermal penetration into the midline of mandibular part of the first branchial arch
presenting as a complete or incomplete cleft of the lower lip, mandible, and tongue with occasional associated deformities of soft tissue structures in the neck derived from the lower branchial arch
Prominent theories range from deleterious genetic mutations (1), vascular disruption with expanding hematoma formation in utero (2), autosomal dominant inheritance (3), and first and second branchial arch
The first and second branchial arch
syndrome results in a wide spectrum of anomalies that encompass diverse, superimposed, and heterogeneous phenotypes within the so-called oculoauriculovertebral spectrum [1, 2].
The base is fixed to the branchial arch
by connective tissues and perforated by nutrient canals along the entire basal edge.
Additional diagnostic features include 18-20 gill rakers on the first branchial arch
, 15-16 circumpeduncular scales, and an absence of vomerine teeth or a small, inconspicuous patch of rudimentary vomerine teeth.
In the present case, an explanation of these additional heads of the SCM may be due to abnormal splitting in the mesoderm of post-sixth branchial arch
"The pathogenesis of the first and second branchial arch
syndrome." Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, 1973:35: 302-328.
'Hairy polyp' of the pharynx in association with an ipsilateral branchial sinus: evidence that the 'hairy polyp' is a second branchial arch
The anterior two thirds originate from paired lateral lingual swellings, which are contributed by first branchial arch
. These swellings fuse in the midline to form the tuberculum impar.
The defect is basically related to maldevelopment of first branchial arch
.Such cases can be diagnosed prenatally by ultrasonography.
According to Myers, "I've done concentration series, where we give sets of embryos exposures at increasing concentrations, and we get a nice linear curve out of it: more alcohol leads to increasing frequency and severity of midline and branchial arch