4c); individuals macropterous or brachypterous
Kawakami Y, Tatsuta H (2010) Variation in the shape of genital appendages along transect of sympatric and allopatric area of two brachypterous
grasshoppers, Parapodisma setouchiensis and P.
Urotergites of females with brown spots; dark brown connexivum, brachypterous
Gryllus firmus) the musculature of thorax was found to be significantly weaker in brachypterous
individuals but the genitalia were more developed; thus a trade-off of these characters was suggested (Roff, 1986; Roff and Bradford, 1996).
This species occurs in both macropterous and brachypterous
00; hemelytral membrane in the macropterous form almost reaching apex of last abdominal segment, in brachypterous
form reaching posterior border of abdominal segment III or anterior border of IV; femora not granulate, sparsely clothed with semidecumbent, silvery, bristle-like setae; maximum width of abdomen wider than 4.
They are mostly brachypterous
or apterous, lacking hindwings.
In this paper I describe and illustrate one species of Mesepipsocus, the first known in Bolivia, peculiar in being brachypterous
and in having caeciliusid forewing venation; it is assigned in Mesepipsocus by having V2+3 strongly heeled anteriorly, and by lacking V1.
Because the eggs used in this experiment were taken from a largely macropterous population in New Jersey and a primarily brachypterous
population in Florida, it could be argued that maternal effects might contribute to any observed differences in wing form between populations.
Within the New World fauna, all the Elicinae are placed in the Elicini (which include the Gaetuliina of Fennah 1978); however, the Elicini are often brachypterous
, have reticulate forewing venation (including crossveins in the costal area), with wings just exceeding the abdomen and phallus with short phallotheca.
tettigoniids with, in lateral view, narrow head, spiny fore and middle tibiae, open tympana, and small auditory spiracle.
Laccocoris limicola is in the spurcus group, which is characterized as having slightly shortened membranes of the hemelytra and brachypterous
or micropterous hindwings, and the posterolateral angles of the pronotum are more or less acute and recurved caudad (Poisson 1949; Linnavuori 1987).
He furthermore diagnosed Macroveliidae by the eggs having several micropyles; Macrovelia by the flightless, brachypterous
form; Oravelia by the first antennal segment being longer than the head width, and Chepuvelia by the abdominal scent orifice being situated on a prominent tubercle.
Certain species of Hieroglyphus present interesting complex, as they appear in swarm (Ghouri and Ahmed, 1960), while some are dimorphic, occurring in both brachypterous
as well as in macropterous forms.
In a competitive setting in the laboratory, brachypterous
males exhibited a threefold mating advantage over macropterous males; they obtained 77% of the matings with brachypterous