Of the 23 carabid beetle species identified in the study, only four species (Bembidion fujiyamai, Diplous depressus, Platynus sp., and Harpalus fuliginosus) were macropterous, and the remaining 19 species were brachypterous
or apterous (Table 1).
Kawakami Y, Tatsuta H (2010) Variation in the shape of genital appendages along transect of sympatric and allopatric area of two brachypterous
grasshoppers, Parapodisma setouchiensis and P.
Gryllus firmus) the musculature of thorax was found to be significantly weaker in brachypterous
individuals but the genitalia were more developed; thus a trade-off of these characters was suggested (Roff, 1986; Roff and Bradford, 1996).
This species occurs in both macropterous and brachypterous
1A); antennal segment IV longer than 1.00; hemelytral membrane in the macropterous form almost reaching apex of last abdominal segment, in brachypterous
form reaching posterior border of abdominal segment III or anterior border of IV; femora not granulate, sparsely clothed with semidecumbent, silvery, bristle-like setae; maximum width of abdomen wider than 4.60.
In this paper I describe and illustrate one species of Mesepipsocus, the first known in Bolivia, peculiar in being brachypterous
and in having caeciliusid forewing venation; it is assigned in Mesepipsocus by having V2+3 strongly heeled anteriorly, and by lacking V1.
and macropterous forms are commonly found in females, and it is believed that the relative abundance of these forms is due to population dynamics, environment-linked characters and the physiological stage of the host plant (Denno and Perfect 1994).
Second, there are species which are more tolerant of fluctuating levels of host-plant nitrogen and these tend to be much less mobile (brachypterous
Differences in juvenile hormone esterase activity between presumptive macropterous and brachypterous
Gryllus rubens: implications for the hormonal control of wing polymorphism.
Because the eggs used in this experiment were taken from a largely macropterous population in New Jersey and a primarily brachypterous
population in Florida, it could be argued that maternal effects might contribute to any observed differences in wing form between populations.
wing (black arrows) (adult Frankliniella fusca).
tettigoniids with, in lateral view, narrow head, spiny fore and middle tibiae, open tympana, and small auditory spiracle.