Program linked directly to the demands of growers); see also Braceros
Agriculture has been at farm labor crossroads many times, asking who will pick the crops after the exclusion of the Chinese in the 1880s and the termination of the Bracero
program in the 1960s.
Oral histories of the Bracero
Program--the migrant farm worker program that ran in the U.S.
This is a welcome addition to the literature on the Cuban sugar industry before the Great Depression and the role played in it by migrant workers ("braceros
") from Haiti and Jamaica.
In six states where braceros
comprised more than 20 percent of seasonal agricultural labor, trends in real farm wages before and after the program ended were similar to those in 17 states where braceros
comprised 3 to 4 percent of the agricultural workforce.
Clemens (http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2017/02/mexico-immigrant-workers-jobs-americans-braceros-history-immigration-214784) noted in an article for the Politico Magazine that Kennedy's beliefs about the economic effect of ending the braceros
' program were based on the recommendations of a Department of Labor commission report, which was led by Rufus von KleinSmid, a charter member of (https://www.dnalc.org/view/11667-e-s-gosney-human-betterment-foundation-letter-to-l-i-dublin-metropolitan-life-insurance-company-about-pending-ny-sterilization-bill-5-8-1934-.html) a society of eugenicists who believed that "Mexicans (http://www.jstor.org/stable/25110755) constituted a genetically inferior race ."
Rylands, a British colonial officer stationed in Owerri, where the mostly Igbo braceros
were from, says that he had 'heard all about the "evil" conditions of Nigerian labourers in Fernando Poo from those who [had] previously been' there.
: History, Compensation (April 2006, Volume 12, Number2)
A series of laws and diplomatic agreements between the United States and Mexico initiated during World War II created the Bracero
Program, which brought in guest workers, or braceros
, by the thousands, and finally, the millions, to shore up a labor force depleted by war.
admitted its first set of contracted Mexican nationals known as braceros
through the Migrant Labor Agreement negotiated with Mexico.
The two countries signed the Bracero
Agreement in 1943, which began the importation of laborers or "braceros
" from Mexico to work in the United States.
En 1937 el departamento de agricultura estadounidense y el gobierno de Mexico trabajaron de forma conjunta para otorgarles empleos a los braceros
. A finales de los 30s, la comunidad mexicana se disperso en centros urbanos como los Angeles, San Antonio, Detroit y Chicago.
Meanwhile, real wages of braceros
actually declined during this remarkable decade of growth: the nominal wage in lemons, the best paid of all local agricultural jobs, was 95 cents an hour in 1947, and just 97 cents an hour in 1959.''