Henry Pope Anderson's account of the Bracero
Program in California says that workers often could not eat their bologna sandwiches, since they were such a departure from the Mexican diet: "To most braceros
there are at least four things wrong with bologna sandwiches.
By bilateral agreement, the bracero
(a Spanish term for manual laborer) program allowed Mexicans to work seasonally on American farms, starting in 1942.
On the shoulders of this desperate necessity, the braceros
have organized a picaresca laboral'--a picaresque labour movement--'that has been very much to the benefit of the unscrupulous bracero
and pretty damn onerous for our agriculture' (Romero Moliner 1952: 91).
Farm workers had been excluded from the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and, despite many union efforts to organize farm workers without NLRA protections, it was only in 1962 that Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta founded the National Farm Workers Association, the union that became the United Farm Workers (UFW) and won 40% wage increases in table grape contracts in 1966, largely because Bracero
workers were not available (Martin, 2003).
The impact of national quotas for immigrants from Mexico coupled with the end of the Bracero
Program, however, meant that thousands of Mexicans lost their legal right to work in the United States.
Up to and throughout his chapter-long focus on the Bracero
period, Foley breaks with Chicana / o Studies tradition and examines the historical perspective from Mexico.
Although originally devised to meet World War II shortages, the Bracero
Program continued until 1964 under a variety of legislative authorities, ultimately employing 5 million Mexican laborers.
The makers of Harvest of Loneliness (HOL) would like to induct the Bracero
Program, 1942-1964 into that Hall of Shame, where citizens come to be outraged by what no one any longer defends.
Lawmakers also ended the Bracero
program, a guest worker scheme for Latin Americans that critics put "on a par with Southern sharecropping.
In his last outing, the 37-year-old won a decision over Gabriel Bracero
, and McCloskey added: "I will not be taking Corley lightly because you are only ever one punch away from defeat.
Tambien revivio el programa bracero
de 1942, a fin de pagar el fondo de ahorro creado por Estados Unidos, sin ser pagado desde entonces.
No hay una respuesta univoca a tal cuestionamiento, pues la migracion mexicana a Estados Unidos, dependiendo del momento historico, las tensiones, conflictos y acuerdos, ha implicado beneficios mutuos en el plano laboral y economico, como en el caso del Programa Bracero
de 1942 a 1964, y problemas que por las crisis economicas y el desajuste del mercado laboral en aquel pais, ante la sobre oferta de mano de obra, derivan en procesos como la repatriacion masiva de mexicanos (1921-1923, 1929-1933, 1939).
Swords, Consuming Mexican Labor: From the Bracero
Program to NAFTA.
The authors trace US agricultural dependence on Mexican migrant workers to the Bracero
program, an agreement between the US and Mexican governments that brought over 2 million Mexican workers to the US from 1942 to 1964.
nopaltitlanense: Consuelese sabiendo que el pueblo es chico.