They are grouped into free morphemes (root words) that can stand on their own; the bound morphemes
that cannot stand on their own, and the zero morphemes--those unseen reflections in a word where no inflectional essence is seen, like in the changing of some verbs into nouns in English language.
Some words might contain one free morpheme and one bound morpheme
(shout-ed and knotted), while many compound words contain two free morphemes (sun-shine).
We used two function words: 'to'ela-[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]', which is a free morpheme, and 'the'--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which is a bound morpheme
, added as a prefix).
The Free Morpheme Constraint claims that code switching is present between a bound and a lexical form unless the latter has been phonologically integrated into the language of the bound morpheme
(Sankoff and Poplack 1981: 5).
The data gathered in 2007 demonstrates that men (men-no) can stand as a noun, and not only as a bound morpheme
associated to other morphemes--a point raised by Evans (2003).
The child in this study used Norwegian grammatical morphemes, bound morphemes
and function words with English words, although bound English morphemes only co-occurred with English words.
The reverse list of the bound morphemes
(gebundene Morpheme) marks, by a hyphen, not only the boundary between the omitted "lexeme" and the bound morpheme
- which is redundant - but boundaries between the several morphemes of a string that occurs in stem-final.
Supporting evidence comes from (i), in which bou `arrest' is a bound morpheme
and is never used alone.
For instance, prefixes and suffixes are bound morphemes
and can be further divided into derivational ones and inflectional ones.
This shows that xor is still between two categories: it kept nominal properties, but also exhibits properties shared with other bound morphemes
, most notably clitics.
Lakhota is a head-marking language and therefore their obligatory arguments are coded by bound morphemes
on the verb, and these arguments may be correferential with independent NPs that behave like adjuncts.
Note, however, that even bound morphemes
can be stressed, provided they have syllabic status (waiTED, not waiTING).
Yet another definition, found in Fisiak (1968 ) is that "word-forming (not inflectional) suffixes are bound morphemes
following the root" (Fisiak 1968 : 108).
The following thirteen papers study morphemes as word-morphemes, bound morphemes
, or grammatical morphemes.
Especially laudable is the CDA's coverage, which encompasses in time and in geographical reach all the areas covered by the much larger dictionaries, and which includes, as does the AHw (von Soden's Akkadisches Handworterbuch) but not the CAD (Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago), some bound morphemes
(suffixes and clitics, but not prefixes and infixes).