Sidel, "Philippine Politics in Town, District, and Province Bossism
in Cavite and Cebu", The Journal of Asian Studies 56, no.
and Democracy in the Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia: Towards an Alternative Framework for the Study of Local Strongmen".
and Democracy in the Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia: Towards an Alternative Framework for the Study of 'Local Strongmen,'" in Politicising Democracy: The New Local Politics of Democratisation, ed.
Pena said the alleged corruption is a remnant of the patronismo, or "bossism
," way of doing things on the border where casting a ballot for the wrong person could mean the voter or voter's relative loses a job or other benefits.
3 of them were dissatisfied with prevailing 'bossism
,' or kin-based patronage, is another example shaped by an intersecting set of conditions (Austin-Broos 2006, 2009:142-151).
Yet even there he saw only bossism
: 'the boss is the leader and creator of the organization'.
San Luis Potosi, 1910-1938 [Revolution and Bossism
: San Luis Potosi, 1910-1938] (Mexico: El Colegio de Mexico, 1984), 194.
Charles Evans Hughes, an early champion of the direct primary, was decrying political involvement and bossism
in the judiciary and arguing in favor of direct party nominations, even as he first campaigned for governor in 1906.
The more open society that resulted came about because workers no longer were dependent as much on factories or giant corporations for their work; blacks were freed from the confines of Jim Crow segregation; and the dominance of political parties (and party bossism
as well) was ended.
Now an assistant managing editor at the Las Vegas Sun, he wrote: "Long before I worked here, I was familiar with the Post's laudable crusade to rid Cincinnati City Hall of bossism
in the 1920's and in succeeding decades to lift the city's quality of life in innumerable ways."
Manley and Seaga to be party competition built on crude bossism
David Tucker, Memphis Since Crump: Bossism
, Blacks, and Civic Reformers, 1948-1968 (Knoxville, 1980), 58-59.
Of particular relevance to One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is Erikson's chapter in his landmark work Childhood and Society (1950) regarding the American character, where he views the challenge post-World War II adolescents face to achieve an identity that embraces democracy without yielding to conformity, that resists the twin modern dangers of what he calls "Momism" and "bossism
." Erikson distinguishes middle-class American families from the patriarchal European ones that spawned Freud's Oedipal theory; on this side of the Atlantic the dominant force in the household is not Pop, whose role is merely that of provider, but an archetypal "Mom." Mom's job is to facilitate, to make sure that individual behavior is brought into line with the requirements of the family unit as a whole.
John Sidel has shown in his study of bossism
in the Philippines that district administrators, though connected to senior central state officials through patron-client networks, ran their respective local state organs in the way they wanted.