Modern orthodontic bonding has evolved through different phases.5 The conventional primers consist of bis-phenol A glycidal methacrylate (Bisgma) resins, which are hydrophobic in nature,6 while moisture insensitive primers consists of hydrophilic components, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and maleic acid dissolved in acetone,7,8 that works efficiently even in moist conditions.
Nonetheless, application of primer while bonding orthodontic brackets is still controversial.
Teeth having a history of orthodontic bonding or any sort of dental pathology, involving the buccal surface were excluded.
In group MP, 30 teeth were cured using standardized bonding protocol including application of moisture insensitive primer resin while 30 teeth in group P were cured using standardized bonding protocol including step of application of conventional primer resins.
Bonding was done by one specialist operator by following these steps: 1.
This E value coincides with the value obtained by Tobolsky for biuret bonding (ref.
The activation energy E was found to be 28.5 Kcal/mole and this value coincides with the value obtained by Tobolsky for biuret bonding (ref.
What remains unexplored is the extent to which availability of bonding opportunities in the school environment may affect an individual's social bonding and risk-taking behavior.
Several studies[9,20,21] provide evidence that adolescent's subjective perceptions of prosocial opportunities available in the social environment are associated with increased social bonding. Whether these subjective perceptions reflect the "real" opportunity structure of prosocial alternatives to risk-taking behavior is unclear.
Figure 1 provides an overview of the heuristic model of the influence of the bonding environment on ninth grade students' social bonding and risk-taking behavior that was tested in a sample of 20 schools.
The hypothesis is that schools in economically advantaged areas may have more physical resources such as athletic facilities and greater parental involvement that may increase the pro-social opportunities available in the school and thus enhance the bonding environment for twelfth grade students.
However with the introduction of acid etching concept by Buonocore in 1955 revolutionized the concept of bonding in dentistry.1 This technique was used by Newman in 1965 for adhesion of orthodontic brackets using composite resin.2 This bonding of the brackets directly to the tooth provides improved gingival health condition, improved patient comfort and acceptable aesthetic.3 Adhesive systems for bonding orthodontic brackets to enamel use three different agents namely etchant, bonding resin and bonding adhesives.
Conventional adhesive bonding is a multi-step procedure involving acid etching of the enamel followed by bonding agent application and placement of orthodontic bracket with composite adhesive on the tooth.4
Direct application of flowable composite on the etched enamel without bonding resin reduces the number of steps during bonding, saves the treatment time and procedural errors associated with salivary contamination.
The rationale of this study was to assess shear bond strength (SBS) achieved with flowable composite without intermediate bonding resin which is able to provide adequate bond strength with fewer procedural steps can help in decreased chair side timings and reducing contamination risk as well as stronger bonding between orthodontic metal brackets and tooth structure for longer duration of orthodontic treatment.