Among different kinds of predators, some common ones are lady beetles and spider who usually feed on different prey including bollworms
which are chewing pests like as american, pink and spotted bollworms
of cotton (Cassida and Quistad, 1998).
Mortality of bollworms
also depend with the blend insecticidal endotoxin by the expression of Cry genes, it was recorded high during early season and gradually decline with passage of time.
Table-2: Overall larval population of bollworms
on different cotton varieties.
He said GM cotton is any variety of cotton that has been genetically enhanced with Bt genes to protect it against the African bollworm
, a major pest that destroys cotton.
Sources further said that field teams have been mobilised to counter the attack of white fly and pink bollworm
Selected genetic material from this bacterium was introduced into cotton; such cotton will have resistance to bollworm
Abstract: Studies were carried out on pe effect of micronutrients on spotted bollworm
Earias vittella F.
The surprise comes especially when different species of bollworms
, such as American, Pink and Spotted bollworm
, were supposed to be eradicated after feasting on the GM Bt cotton crop.
These insects are not new to our environment; rather they were surviving in the past in small numbers, and could not make an impact in the past due to management practices adopted for bollworms
or other insects.
For example, the USDA Pink Bollworm
Project Photograph Collection documents USDA work on bollworm
detection, prevention, and quarantine measures.
With about 90 per cent area under Bt cotton, bollworms
can develop resistance soon.
and pink bollworms
, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)), the Cry1Ac [delta]-endotoxin in Bollgard[R] cotton is less effective for controlling beet and fall armyworms, and bollworms
, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Adamczyk et al.
Tabashnik knew from lab experiments that pink bollworms
evolve resistance by developing a balky version of cadherin, which doesn't bind well with the Cry1A pieces.
Jenkins, a research plant geneticist and director of the ARS Crop Science Research Laboratory at Mississippi State, Miss., is an authority on the genetics controlling cotton plants' natural ability to resist attack by boll weevils, cotton bollworms
, tobacco budworms, tarnished plant bugs and microscopic worms known as nematodes.
and legume pod borers are the most significant crop pests worldwide, and are becoming ever more expensive as they develop high levels of resistance to the commonly used insecticides.