Furthermore, elevated levels of AGEs were associated with increased ROS as well as additional age-associated events including accelerated nuclear maturation, abnormal fertilisation, and decreased blastulation rates .
Therefore, high ammonia in the culture media at the time of compaction and blastulation may reduce the availability of ATP for embryonic cells during a stage of development when energy demands by the embryo are high, resulting in increased degenerate ova and decreased blastocyst stages.
Accordingly, in early embryo the first and fourth cell cycles were prolonged by 4-5 h in the absence of serum during IVM-IVF, whereas the presence of serum during embryo culture decreased the duration of the fourth cell cycle leading to premature blastulation (12).
DMAE added to the embryos at the two-cell stage in concentrations of 100-400 [micro]M did not alter cleavage divisions or blastulation, but at very high concentrations (600-800 [micro]M), cleavages were inhibited (Figures 2 and 3).
Embryos were found in aquaria at early blastula to midblastula stage and, therefore, information about gamete structure, egg maturation, events of fertilization, early cleavage stages, and blastulation is lacking.