Chromosomal analysis using NGS: Chromosomal status of each blastomere
was determined using VeriSeq library preparation based on the manufacture's guideline (Illumina, Inc.,California,USA).
PGS can be used to screen embryo biopsies for aneuploidy before transplantation, and thus promote better pregnancy outcomes from IVF therapy., While embryo biopsies can be performed at the zygote (via the removal of 1-2 polar bodies), cleavage (via the removal of 1-2 blastomeres
from a 6-8-cell embryo), and/or blastocyst (via the removal of 5-10 TE cells) stage of development, PGS is currently predominantly conducted using blastocysts, since they exhibit both a low-mosaic rate and high developmental potential, and facilitate ICM evaluation., Specific indications for PGS include infertility at an advanced maternal age (>35 years), previous unsuccessful IVF treatments (i.e.
Division of the blastomere
(BL), which is evidence of the fertilization of the oocyte after surgical extraction of follicles from a chicken.
Once the blastomere
is collected, it is normally cocultured with the parental biopsy embryo in the medium containing fibronectin and laminin.
For the second cleavage, the PL extruded from the large blastomere
(data not shown).
To complete analysis of all chromosomes in one blastomere
, the FISH method is replaced with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods.
The S-biopsy method is a simplified displacement method in combination with laser-assisted hatching for the removal of a blastomere
and is performed on cleavage stage embryos .
The first cleavages were observed 20 minutes after fertilization (AF), yielding cells with 02, 04, 08, 16, 32 and 64 blastomeres
. As the targeting cell increases, the degree of compaction intensifies between blastomeres
, hindering their individual observations.
Cloning concerns are especially applicable to the blastomere
nuclear transfer technique, where a blastomere
is derived from an embryo that consists of several cells, not just a single cell as found during transfer of spindles or pronuclei (Fig.
In this study, genome profiling of human embryos using single blastomere
whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was assessed in a [beta]-thalassemia family.
The edges or part of the edges are very important for blastomere
On the third day after insemination, the morphology of each embryo was measured for number of cells, extent of fragmentation, and blastomere
Cleavage furrow appeared on one side of the blastomere
, creating a heart-shaped zygote (Figure 4(b)).
Embryo evaluation criteria, A-grade: Embryos with even granulation and well-defined distinct outline, B grade: Embryo with intact but hazy outline having extruded cells and some degenerate blastomere
, Degenerated: Embryos with degenerated blastomeres
and not possible to determine the exact developmental stage,