Our results indicated that immunocytes (both phagocytes and cytotoxic morula cells) are active in the transcription of genes involved in ROS detoxification, and their activity is modulated during the blastogenetic cycle and by the presence of Cd.
A colonial blastogenetic cycle is defined as the period of time between one take-over and the next.
To avoid interference with the ROS production associated with the generation change (Cima et al., 2010), exposed colonies were at the mid-cycle phase of the blastogenetic cycle; exposure time was limited to 2, 4, and 6 h.
When analyzed in the course of the blastogenetic cycle, the total amount of mRNAs for BsGCLM, BsCu/ZnSOD, and BsGPx5 significantly (P < 0.001) decreased during take-over with respect to MC.
Brien (1968) described the morphogenetic action of the somatic cells during the blastogenetic development of ascidians as driven by morphallactic events.
The display of canonical kinetics of telomerase activity during blastogenetic development in Botryllus implies that a population of stem cells home into the bud area, that a resident population of quiescent cells becomes activated during the formation of the double vesicle, or both.
All of them can contribute to the asexual/regenerative development of the chimeric colony in the next blastogenetic generations, as well as compete for resettlement in the germline in each developing zooid (Stoner and Weissman, 1996; Stoner et al, 1999; Laird et al, 2005b; De Tomaso, 2006).