This tendency of two peaks is consistent with a previous finding. Reactive gliosis and neuronal swelling also have been observed in the hippocampus of rats subjected to blast injury
. Overall, neuronal injury and gliosis in frontal lobe and hippocampus were significantly higher at 3 days post-bTBI induced by moderate blast.
Damage to the ear is a primary blast injury
. Transient or permanent hearing loss or tinnitus occurs due to blast-related ear damage to the sensitive structures of the inner and middle ear, such as the cochlea, ossicular chain, TM and vestibular system.
The most frequent underlying cause was IED blast injury
(n=114, 54.3%) followed by blunt trauma (n=42, 20.0%) and RTA (n=24, 11.4%).
Explosions result in four different types of injury which comprise primary injury (overpressure or implosion injury as a result of blast wave), secondary injury (caused by projectiles from primary bomb fragments or secondary fragments), tertiary injury (caused by whole body translocation due to blast wave energy) and quaternary blast injury
(due to fire and heat generated from explosion)7.
The data from this large sample of pediatric patients has increased our knowledge of pediatric blast injury
and resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock.
The greatest source of information on symptoms immediately following primary blast injury
of the ear may be found in civilian literature .
Tertiary blast injury
occurs when a victim is thrown against the ground or an object.
The centre brought together military and civilian clinicians with scientists and engineers to address specific clinical areas aimed at understanding blast injury
mechanisms and investigating treatment and mitigation strategies.
Angus Scrimgeour, who has been investigating the effects of low zinc diets on cell stress following a blast injury
. "The adult brain does not self-repair from this kind of trauma."
Since the victims were, on average, more than four years removed from their injuries, the results suggest the presence of a long-term impact of blast injury
on the brain.
In all, 88 patients had penetrating head injury, of whom 45 (51%) had a secondary diagnosis of blast injury
; and 34 patients had a closed head injury, of whom 15 (44%) had a secondary diagnosis of blast injury
Coverage includes the major categories of death, including: gunshot wounds, blunt trauma, blast injury
, thermal injury, drowning, natural deaths, sharp force injury, suicide, and a few less common causes such as asphyxiation and electrocution.
This edition has revisions based on material from journals; additional references; more on evidence-based medicine, sleep apnea, blast injury
, "minor" head trauma, and cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis; and new findings related to transplantation-related graft-versus-host problems, AIDS, and the adverse effects of therapy, drug abuse, and egg donation.
This online course and the blast injury
fact sheets are supported by CDC's Terrorism Injuries Information, Dissemination and Exchange (TIIDE) Project.
(1,2) Middle ear injuries caused by lightning appear to be a form of blast injury
, although there may also be a thermal component.