Among them, bladder tumor antigen
(BTA) in urine is a sensitive marker and has been used as an adjunct to cystoscopy in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with BC (6-10).
To meet these criteria, substantial research has focused on developing a variety of potential biomarkers, including nuclear matrix protein, fibrin/fibrinogen product, bladder tumor antigen
, telomeric repeat amplification protocols (TRAP), tumor-associated antigens, hyaluronic acid, and hyaluronidase.
Tumor markers used in this study were the nuclear matrix protein (Matritech NMP-22) and the bladder tumor antigen
(Bard BTA), which are commercially available, and the telomerase assay (TRAP) which is currently under investigation.
Recent reports have described the application of urine-based markers, including bladder tumor antigen
(BTA),6 nuclear matrix protein-22 (NMP22), and the urinary bladder cancer (UBC) test (5, 6).
Among these, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for monitoring of patients with bladder cancer has been given to nuclear matrix protein (NMP) 22, fibrin /fibrinogen degradation product (FDP), and bladder tumor antigen
(BTA; Table 1).