They were entering the lower urinary tract below the bladder sphincter
so the puppy had no way of holding onto the urine and whatever the Kidneys were producing, was dribbling out subconsciously.
Ginsberg declaration, while offering his own medical opinion, candidly acknowledged that it was possible that Gregory's incontinence was caused by injury to his bladder sphincter
They include decreased internal bladder sphincter
tone due to alfa 1 adrenergic blockade (4), reduced dopamine transmission in the basal ganglia (5), urinary retention and subsequent overflow incontinence due to antimuscarinic properties of antipsychotics (6) and blockade of pudendal reflexes via antagonism of 5-HT2 or 3 (7) and the activation of neuronal 5 HT4 receptors in the detrusor muscle (8).
Children with both non-neuropathic at-risk bladder secondary to posterior urethral valve (PUV) and non-neuropathic bladder sphincter
dysfunction (NNBSD) are a challenge to manage.
A similar procedure is successfully improving bladder sphincter
function in human trials of patients with urinary incontinence.