These receptors are primarily located in the human prostate, bladder base, bladder neck
, and the prostatic urethra.
Pathological examination of the whole specimen confirmed MM of the urethra, infiltrating the anterior vaginal wall and the bladder neck
, and all lymph nodes were positive for metastases (Figures 3 and 4).
Long-term assessment revealed that 3 patients (0.4%) developed bladder neck
contracture (2 patients at 6 months and 1 patient at 4 months following RARP) and managed with a single endoscopic bladder neck
The junction where the ureters attached to bladder neck
was ligated with catgut no.1 and then transected (Fig.
Level II supports the middle one-half of the vagina to the levator ani muscles and provides a firm base for bladder neck
Cystoscopy showed almost completely obstruction at the bladder neck
. In May 2014, a bladder neck
incision was performed, but, only one month later, another incident of urinary retention occurred.
Pelvic floor four-dimensional ultrasound indicated that bladder neck
mobility was slightly increasing, posterior wall of the bladder was slightly bulged, and anterior vaginal wall was slightly prolapsed in anterior compartment.
CT scan abdomen and pelvis with contrast was done, which revealed a large well circumscribed, round polypoidal mass measuring 4.4 x 4.5 cm at the posterior inferior surface of the bladder near the bladder neck
Two lines were marked initially; these lines originated at 5 o'clock and 7 o'clock at the bladder neck
and continued along the boundaries between the median and lateral lobes before terminating at the proximal margin of the verumontanum.
Cystoscopy revealed a large defect 2.5-3 cm present beyond bladder neck
. No fistulous opening was identified in vagina.
(12) found in their multivariate analysis that the duration of catheterization, bladder neck
preservation, and preoperative IIEF values were associated with early continence.
Patients in which only continent reconstruction were done, such as creation of Mitrofanoff, Monte, and bladder neck
reconstruction without AC, were also excluded.
A cystoscopy and bladder neck
resection were carried out for the urinary outlet obstruction.
This device consists of two anchors and a silicone tube that reduces resistance in the bladder neck
and prostatic urethra without stenting the external sphincter.
Alpha-blockers: Selective alpha-blockers--alfuzosin (Uroxatral[R]), silodosin (Rapaflo[R]) and tamsulosin (Flomax[R])--work by relaxing the smooth muscles in the bladder neck