Let us not forget, the massacre of the Chinese following the gold rush, the notorious blackbirding
, (where thousands of South Sea Islanders were abducted and brought to work in the cornfields of Queensland and were subsequently dumped arbitrarily on various islands in the pacific), the "White Australia" policy which lasted till 1968, where Indian students were beaten up for being Indian, where deaths in custody still occur (those who die are aborigines) and the ostracism of the aboriginal community.
Trade union and radical liberal opposition to such labour reflected a humanitarian antipathy to what was thought to amount to slavery (sometimes known as 'blackbirding
'), and promoted the twin aims of high wages and a racially pure society.
Connell canvassed continuities between 'blackbirding
' at the turn of the twentieth century and the recent Australian use of temporary Pacific Island labour.
She stares with the physical violence of recruiting and in some instances of kidnapping or 'blackbirding
' but then leaps into matters of agency, resistance and consciousness and the legal, political, economic and philosophical infrastructure which she calls "administered violence" (p.
They made little progress at first, because "blackbirding
"--the often brutal recruitment of laborers for the sugar plantations in Queensland and Fiji--led to a series of reprisals and massacres.
As a consequence, places like Queensland Australia and Fiji became major sites for enslaved plantation labor via the process of "blackbirding
"--a euphemism for the lure and/or capture of Melanesians and Polynesians to toil for naught or next to nothing in return.
The thriving practice of "blackbirding
" the capture by force of indigenous island populations and their subsequent enslavement on large-scale plantations in the South Sea Islands rose as slavery in the States fell.
It was one of the worst aspects of slavery, and is a horrifying feature of literature about the American slave colonies and States, and the Queensland blackbirding
and forced labour of "kanakas"'.
The Dampier Archipelago (including the Burrup Peninsula), along with a section of the adjacent mainland, is believed to have been occupied during pre-European times and the early post-contact period by the Yaburara, who are assumed to have died out from a combination of introduced European diseases (including the smallpox epidemics of 1865 and 1870), 'blackbirding
', and the Flying Foam Massacre of 1868 (Vinnicombe 1987:5).
Colonisers came from patriarchal societies in which the stratum of class and hereditary male privilege largely determined whether the coloniser would be commandant of a colonising force or foot soldier, merchant trader or trading clerk, slave-ship owner/trader or blackbirding
seaman, military convict overseer or convict.
In the 19th century there was much 'hunting' for cheap labor from the Pacific (blackbirding
Ironically, around the time that African slaves were emancipated in the US, "blackbirding
"--the practice of luring Polynesians and other nonwhites to work for virtually nothing--arose in Australia and the South Seas.
His book ranges over the theory of Social Darwinism, South Sea blackbirding
, the Japanese 'Yellow Peril' and post-war immigration.
It goes without saying that this so-called "blackbirding
" campaign had a tremendous social impact on the various island communities and states.