0 m Ash N A N N Bitternut hickory
N N N N Beech N A A N Cherry A P N N Dogwood N N N N Elm A N A N Hop hornbeam P A P N Hawthorn A A A A Red maple N A A A Red oak P P P P Shagbark hickory A A A N Sugar maple A A A A White oak N A A N Overall Ash N Bitternut hickory
N Beech A Cherry N Dogwood N Elm A Hop hornbeam P Hawthorn A Red maple A Red oak P Shagbark hickory A Sugar maple A White oak A TABLE 2.
In contrast, bitternut hickory hackberry and the invasives, European buckthorn and prickly ash, showed large increases across many of the sites.
In place of these historical dominants, we see the increase in several species not historically dominant in the Lower Wisconsin, most notably bitternut hickory and hackberry.
The general decrease in pioneer and historical dominant species (all relatively flood tolerant) and the increase in species with lower flood tolerances, such as bitternut hickory, hackberry and Northern red oak, at four of the five sites (excluding Wyoming Bluffs, which we discuss later) suggest that survivorship is becoming the more common strategy in this region.
The removal of adult silver maple and green ash has allowed bitternut hickory and hackberry--both shade tolerant species--to become dominant more quickly (at Helena and Ferry Bluff, respectively).